Handbook of Creativity

Part of the series Perspectives on Individual Differences pp 111-132

Creativity and Intelligence

  • Patricia A. HaenslyAffiliated withDepartment of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University
  • , Cecil R. ReynoldsAffiliated withDepartment of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University

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Consideration of the relationship between creativity and intelligence during this past half-century has occupied the attention of psychologists with varied perspectives (e.g., Cattell, 1963a; Coler, 1963; Guilford, 1950, 1959, 1968, 1981; MacKinnon, 1962; Roe, 1951, 1963; Terman, 1954, 1955; Torrance, 1960, 1967). Scientists working in a variety of other disciplines from genetics to engineering (see Simonton, 1984, 1985; Taylor & Barron, 1963) also have been intrigued by the contribution of intelligence to creative discovery and invention. And philosophers from Aristotle and Plato to Immanuel Kant, Brand Blanshard, and Jacques Maritain (citing here only those of Western civilization) (Rothenberg & Hausman, 1976) have pondered the origin of creativity and its relationship to rational thought. Professionals and lay people alike are fascinated by the topic, and, even more so, by the consequences of applying creative effort and/or intelligent action, and by the implications for their nurturance and educability. This chapter will provide a brief overview of past perspectives regarding the nature and extent of a relationship between creativity and intelligence and will propose and support a view of the two phenomena as integrated in optimal mental performance.