## Abstract

Marine foundations are used to transmit structural design loadings to the subsoil. The type of foundation element to be employed will depend on (1) the nature of loading, (2) the stiffness and strength of the surface sediments, and (3) the desires of the builder. A summary of the common platform types is shown in Figure 18.1. The two major foundation types are those that employ a surface loading mechanism (shallow foundations) and those that extend down through the surface sediments to a lower layer (deep foundations). An example of a foundation system for surface loading is the mat used on a gravity platform. The deep pile that is used on a jacket platform is an example of a deep foundation system. Examples of various marine foundation types are presented in Figures 18.2a and 18.2b.

## Keywords

Skin Friction Pile Group Undrained Shear Strength Cone Penetration Test American Petroleum Institute## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## References

- Aggarwal, S. L., Malhotra, A. K., and Banerjee, R. (1979), Engineering properties of calcareous soils affecting the design of deep penetration piles for offshore structures,
*Proceedings 9th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston,**3**, pp. 503-512.Google Scholar - Anderson, K. H. (1976), Behavior of clay subjected to undrained cyclic loading, Conference on the Behavior of Offshore Structures, BOSS 76, Trondheim, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute.Google Scholar
- Anderson, K. H., Hansteen, O. L., Hoeg, K., and Prevost, J. H. (1978),
*Soil Deformations Due to Cyclic Loads on Offshore Structures*, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, No. 16.Google Scholar - Andresen, A., Berre, T., Kleven, A., and Lunne, T. (1979), Procedures used to obtain soil parameters for foundation engineering in the North Sea,
*Marine Geotechnology*,**3**, pp. 201–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Angemeer, J., Carlson, E. D., and Klick, J. H. (1973) Techniques and results of offshore pile load testing in calcareous soils, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Paper 1894.Google Scholar
- Angemeer, J., Carlson, E. D., Stroud, S., and Kurzeme, M. (1975), Pile load tests in calcareous soils conducted in 400 feet of water from a semisubmersible exploration rig, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Paper 2311.Google Scholar
- Antoine, J. and Trabant, P. (1976), Geological features of shallow gas,
*Proceedings, Houston Geophysical Society*, Houston, Texas.Google Scholar - API (1984),
*Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms*, American Petroleum Institute Publication RP-2A, Dallas, Texas.Google Scholar - Arnold, K. E. (1967), Soil movements and their effects on pipelines in the Mississippi Delta Region, M.S. Thesis, Tulane University, New Orleans.Google Scholar
- Audibert, J. M. E. and Nyman, K. J. (1977), Soil restraint against horizontal motion of pipes,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**103**, No. GT-10, pp. 1119–1142.Google Scholar - Audibert, J. M. E., Lai, N. W., and Bea, R. G. (1978), Design of pipelines to resist seafloor instabilities and hydrodynamic forces, presented at the Energy Technology Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas.Google Scholar
- Bea, R. G. (1975), Parameters affecting axial capacity of piles in clays,
*Proceedings 7th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, OTC 2307, pp. 611-623.Google Scholar - Bea, R. G. (1980), Dynamic response of piles in offshore platforms,
*Proceedings, Dynamic Response of Pile Foundations: Analytical Aspects*, ASCE, pp. 80-109.Google Scholar - Bea, R. G., Audibert, J. M. E., and Dover, A. R. (1980), Dynamic response of laterally loaded and axially loaded piles,
*Proceedings, 12th Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas, Paper OTC 3749, pp. 129-139.Google Scholar - Been, K., Jefferies, M. G., Crooks, J. H. A., and Rotherburg, L. (1987), The cone penetration test in sands: Part II, General inference of state,
*Geotechnique*,**37**, pp. 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Berezantsev, V. G., Kristoforov, V. S., and Golubkov, V. N. (1961), Load bearing capacity and deformation of piled foundations,
*Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering*, Paris,**2**, pp. 11-12.Google Scholar - Berger, W. H. (1976), Biogenous deep sea sediments: Production, preservation and interpretation,
*Chemical Oceanography*, Vol. 5, 2d ed., ed. J. P. Riley and R. Chester, Academic Press, London, Chapter 29, pp. 265–388.Google Scholar - Bjerrum, L. (1973), Geotechnical problems involved in foundations of structures in the North Sea,
*Geotechnique*,**23**, pp. 319–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Bonar, A. J. and Ghazzali, O. I. (1973), Research on pipeline flotation,
*Journal of the Transportation Engineering Division, ASCE*,**99**, No. TE-2, pp. 211–233.Google Scholar - Boulon, M., Desrues, J., Foray, P., and Forque, M. (1980), Numerical model for foundation under cyclic loading, Application to piles,
*International Symposium on Soils Under Cyclic and Transient Loading*, Swansea, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 681–694.Google Scholar - Bowles, J. E. (1988),
*Foundation Analysis and Design*, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Briaud, J. L. and Audibert, J. M. E. (eds.) (1985), The pressuremeter and its marine applications, Second International Symposium,
*ASTM STP 950*, American Society for Testing and Materials.Google Scholar - Broms, B. and James, D. J. E. (1985), Foundation problems with jack-up rigs in East China Sea,
*Proceedings, 2nd Shanghai Symposium on Marine Geotechnology and Near shore/Offshore Structures*, Tongji University Press, Shanghai, pp. 3–31.Google Scholar - Brown, R. J. (1973), Pipeline design to reduce anchor and fishing board damage,
*Journal of the Transportation Engineering Division, ASCE*,**99**, No. TE-2, pp. 199–210.Google Scholar - Brown, J. D. and Meyerhof, G. G. (1969), Experimental study of bearing capacity in layered clays,
*Proceedings 7th International Conference on Soil and Foundation Engineering*, Mexico City,**2**.Google Scholar - Burland, J. B. (1973), Shaft friction of piles in clay—A simple fundamental approach,
*Ground Engineering*,**6**, No. 3, pp. 30–42.Google Scholar - Butler, F. G. (1975), Heavily over consolidated clays, Review paper: Session III, Settlement of Structures,
*Proceedings*of a conference organized by the British Geotechnical Society, Cambridge, Pentech Press, London, pp. 531–572.Google Scholar - CFEM (1978),
*Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual*, Canadian Geotechnical Society, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.Google Scholar - Carrier, W. D. III, and Christian, J. T. (1973), Rigid circular plate resting on a non-homogeneous elastic half-space,
*Geotechnique*,**23**, No. 1, pp. 67–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Casagrande, A. (1932), The structure of clay and its importance in foundation engineering,
*Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers*,**19**, No. 4.Google Scholar - Chaney, R. C. (1984), Methods of predicting the deformation of the seabed due to cyclic loading,
*Seabed Mechanics*, ed. B. Denness, Graham and Trotman, London, pp. 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Chaney, R. C., Slonim, S. S., and Slonim, S. M. (1982), Determination of calcium content in soils,
*Proceedings*—*Symposium on Performance and Behavior of Calcareous Soils*, ed. K. Demars and R. C. Chaney, ASTM STP 777, pp. 3-15.Google Scholar - Chaney, R. C. and Demars, K. R. (eds.) (1985),
*Proceedings—Strength Testing of Marine Sediments: Laboratory and In Situ Measurements*, ASTM STP 883.Google Scholar - Chaney, R. C. and Fang, H. Y. (1986a), Static and dynamic properties of marine sediments,
*Proceedings of Symposium on Marine Geotechnology and Nearshore*/*Offshore Structures*, ed. K. Demars and R. C. Chaney, ASTM STP 923, pp. 74-111.Google Scholar - Chaney, R. C. and Fang, H. Y. (eds.) (1986b),
*Proceedings—Marine Geotechnology and Nearshore/Offshore Structures*, ASTM STP 923.Google Scholar - Chaney, R. C., Demars, K. R., and Fang, H. Y. (1985), Toward a unified approach to soil property characterization,
*Proceedings—Strength Testing of Marine Sediments: Laboratory and In Situ Measurements*, ed. K. Demars and R. C. Chaney, ASTM STP 883, pp. 425-439.Google Scholar - Chellis, R. D. (1961),
*Pile Foundations*, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Clark, J. I. and Jordaan, I. J. (1987), Geotechnical predictions in ice affected marine environments,
*Proceedings, International Symposium on Prediction and Performance in Geotechnical Engineering*, Calgary, Alberta, pp. 15-25.Google Scholar - Clausen, C. J. F. (1976), The Condeep story,
*Offshore Soil Mechanics*, ed. P. George and D. Wood, Cambridge University Engineering Dept, and Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, London, pp. 256–270.Google Scholar - Clausen, C. J. F., DiBiagio, E., Duncan, J. M., and Andersen, K. H. (1975), Observed behavior of the Ekofisk oil storage tank foundation,
*Proceedings 7th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas,**3**, pp. 399-413.Google Scholar - Clausen, C. J. and Lunne, T. (1980), The application of soil investigation data to the design of offshore gravity platforms,
*Offshore Site Investigation*, ed. E. A. Ardus, Graham and Trotman, London, pp. 247–256.Google Scholar - Clausen, C. J., Aas, P. M., and Almeland, I. B. (1982), Analysis of pile foundation system for a North Sea drilling platform,
*Proceedings of the International Conference on the Behavior of Offshore Structures*, BOSS 82, Cambridge, Mass.,**1**, pp. 141-157.Google Scholar - Cooke, R. W., Price, G., and Tarr, K. (1979), Jacked piles in London clay: A study of load transfer and settlement under working conditions,
*Geotechnique*,**29**, No. 2, pp. 113–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Cox, W. R., Kraft, L. M., and Verner, E. A. (1979), Axial load tests on 14 inch pipe piles in clay,
*Proceedings, Eleventh Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas, pp. 1147-1151.Google Scholar - Coyle, H. W. and Reese, L. C. (1966), Load transfer for axially loaded piles in clay,
*Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE*,**92**, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar - Daley, G. C. (1973), Optimization of tension level and stinger length for offshore pipeline installation,
*Proceedings 5th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas, Paper OTC 1875, pp. 473-478.Google Scholar - Datta, M., Gulhati, S. K., and Rao, G. V. (1979), Crushing of calcareous sands during shear,
*Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas, OTC Paper No. 3525, pp. 1459-1467.Google Scholar - Datta, M., Gulhati, S. K., and Rao, G; V. (1980), An appraisal of the existing practice of determining the axial load capacity of deep penetration piles in calcareous sands,
*12th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Paper No. OTC 3867, pp. 119-130.Google Scholar - Davis, E. H. and Booker, J. R. (1973), The effect of increasing strength with depth on the bearing capacity of clays,
*Geotechnique*,**23**, No. 4, pp. 551–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Dawson, T. H. (1983),
*Offshore Structural Engineering*, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar - de Ruiter, J. (1971), Electric penetrometer for site investigations,
*Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE*,**97**, No. SM-2, pp. 457–472.Google Scholar - de Ruiter, J. (1975), The use of in situ testing for North Sea soil studies, Offshore Europe Conference, Aberdeen.Google Scholar
- de Ruiter, J. and Beringen, F. L. (1979), Pile foundations for large North Sea structures,
*Marine Geotechnology*,**3**, No. 3, pp. 267–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Demars, K. R. (1978), Design of marine pipelines for areas of unstable sediment,
*Journal of the Transportation Engineering Division, ASCE, TEI*, Proc. Paper 13455, pp. 107-112.Google Scholar - Demars, K. R. (1979), Design consideration for pipelines interacting with travelling waves,
*Proceedings ASCE Coastal Structures 79*, Alexandria, Va., pp. 100-114.Google Scholar - Demars, K. R., Nacci, V. A., and Wang, M. C. (1977), Pipeline failures: A need for improved analyses and site surveys,
*Proceedings Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas, Paper OTC 2966.Google Scholar - Demars, K. R. and Chaney, R. C. (eds.) (1982),
*Proceedings*—*Symposium on Geotechnical Properties, Behavior and Performance of Calcareous Soils*, ASTM STP 777.Google Scholar - Det Norske Veritas (DNV) (1977),
*Rules for Design, Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures*, Hovik, Norway.Google Scholar - Drewry, J. M., Weidler, J. B., and Hwong, S. T. (1977), Predicting axial pile capacities for offshore platforms,
*Petroleum Engineer*,**41**.Google Scholar - Dunlap, W. A., Bryant, W. R., Bennett, R. H., and Richards, A. F. (1978), Pore pressure measurements in unconsolidated sediments,
*10th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas.Google Scholar - Eide, O. T., Larsen, L. G., and Mo, O. (1976), Installation of the Shell/Esso Brent B Condeep production platform,
*Proceedings 8th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas,**1**, pp. 101-114.Google Scholar - Eide, O., Kjekstad, O., and Brylawski, E. (1979a), Installation of concrete gravity structures in the North Sea,
*Marine Geotechnology*,**3**, pp. 315–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Eide, O. T., Andersen, K. H., and Lunne, T. (1979b), Observed foundation behaviour of concrete gravity platforms installed in the North Sea 1973–1978,
*Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on the Behaviour of Offshore Structures*, BOSS 79, pp. 435-456.Google Scholar - Endley, S. N., Rapoport, V., Thompson, P. J., and Baglioni, V. P. (1981), Prediction of jack-up rig footing penetration,
*Proceedings, 13th Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas,**4**, pp. 285-296.Google Scholar - Fact Sheet (1986),
*The Norwegian Continental Shelf*, Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, Norway.Google Scholar - Fang, H. Y. and Chaney, R. C. (1985), Causes of foundation instability of nearshore/offshore structures and improvement techniques,
*Proceedings of Shanghai Symposium on Marine Geotechnology and Nearshore/Offshore Structures*, Shanghai, pp. 575-590.Google Scholar - Fang, H. Y. and Chaney, R. C. (1986), Geo-environmental and climatological conditions related to marine structural design along the China coastline,
*Proceedings of Symposium on Marine Geotechnology and Nearshore/Offshore Structures*, ASTM STP 923, pp. 149-160.Google Scholar - FIP (1978), Federation International de la Précontrainte (FIP), Commission on Concrete Sea Structures. Working Group on Foundations,
*Foundations of Concrete Gravity Structures in the North Sea*, SOA Draft.Google Scholar - Flaate, K. and Seines, P. (1977), Side friction of piles in clay,
*Proceedings, 9th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering*, Tokyo, 1, pp. 517-522.Google Scholar - Focht Jr., J. A. and Kraft Jr., L. M. (1981), Prediction of capacity of long piles in clay: A status report,
*Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Coastal and Offshore Structures*, Bangkok, pp. 95–113.Google Scholar - Gaythwaite, J. (1981),
*The Marine Environment and Structural Design*, Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co., New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Geddes, J. D. (1969), Boussinesq based approximations to the vertical stress caused by pile type subsurface loadings,
*Geotechnique*,**19**, No. 4, pp. 509–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Gemeinhardt, J. B. and Focht, J. A. (1970), Theoretical and observed performance of mobile rig footings on clay,
*Proceedings, 2nd Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas,**1**, pp. 549-558.Google Scholar - George, P. and Wood, D. (eds.) (1976),
*Offshore Soil Mechanics*, Cambridge University Engineering Department and Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, London.Google Scholar - Gerwick Jr., B. C. (1986),
*Construction of Offshore Structures*, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Gibson, R. E. and Dowse, B. E. W. (1981), The influence of geotechnical engineering on the evolution of offshore structures in the North Sea,
*Canadian Geotechnical Journal*,**18**, No. 2, pp. 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Goble, G. G. (1983), Analysis of offshore pile driving—A review,
*Proceedings of Conference on Geotechnical Practice in Offshore Engineering*, éd. S. G. Wright, ASCE, pp. 596-603.Google Scholar - Goble, G. G. and Rausche, F. (1980), Wave equation analysis of pile driving—WEAP program, Volumes I, II, and III,
*FHWA Report No. FHWA-IP-76-14.1*, Goble and Associates, Warrensville Height, Ohio 44128.Google Scholar - Hanna, A. M. and Meyerhof, G. G. (1980), Design charts for ultimate bearing capacity of foundations on sand overlying soft clay,
*Canadian Geotechnical Journal*,**17**, pp. 300–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Hansen, J. B. (1961), A general formula for bearing capacity,
*Danish Geotechnical Institute Bulletin No. 28*, Copenhagen.Google Scholar - Heerema, E. P. (1978), Predicting pile driveability: Heather as an illustration of the ‘friction fatigue’ theory, European Offshore Petroleum Conference, London, Paper No. 50.Google Scholar
- Heerema, E. P. (1979), Relationships between wall friction, displacement, velocity and horizontal stress in clay and sand for pile drivability,
*Ground Engineering*,**12**, No. 1, pp. 55–65.Google Scholar - Henkel, D. S. (1970), The role of waves in causing submarine slides,
*Geotechnique*,**20**, No. 1, pp. 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Hirsch, T. J., Koehler, A. M., and Sutton, V. J. R. (1975), Selection of pile driving equipment and field evaluation of pile bearing capacity during driving for the North Sea Forties field,
*Proceedings, 7th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Paper No. 2247, pp. 37-49.Google Scholar - Hirsch, T. J., Carr, L., and Lowry, L. L. (1976), Pile driving analysis— Wave equation use manual TTI program, Vols I, II, and III,
*FHWA Report No. FHWA-IP-76-13.1*, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas 77840.Google Scholar - Hirst, T. J., Steele, J. F., Remy, N. D., and Scales, R. E. (1976), Performance of mat-supported jack-up rigs,
*Proceedings, 8th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas,**1**, pp. 821–830.Google Scholar - Hobbs, N. B. (1977), Behavior and design of piles in chalk—an introduction to the discussion of the papers on chalk,
*Proceedings, Symposium on Piles in Weak Rock*, London, pp. 149–175.Google Scholar - Hoeg, K. (1986), Geotechnical issues in offshore engineering,
*Marine Geotechnology and Nearshore/Offshore Structures*, ed. R. C. Chaney and H. Y. Fang, ASTM STP 923, pp. 7-50.Google Scholar - Hoeg, K. and Tang, W. H. (1977), Probabilistic considerations in the foundation engineering for offshore structures,
*Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability*, Munich, pp. 267-296.Google Scholar - Holmquist, D. V. and Matlock, H. (1976), Resistance-displacement relationships for axially loaded piles in soft clay,
*Proceedings 8th Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas, Paper OTC 2474, pp. 554-569.Google Scholar - Idriss, I. M., Dobry, R., and Singh, R. D. (1978), Nonlinear behavior of soft clays during cyclic loading,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**104**, No. GT-12, pp. 1427–1447.Google Scholar - Jacobsen, M., Christensen, K. V., and Sorensen, C. S. (1977), Giennemlokning aftynde sandlag, Vag-och Vattenbuggaren, Sevenska Vag-och Vattenbuggares Riksforbund, Stockholm, pp. 23–25.Google Scholar
- Janbu, N. (1976), Static bearing capacity of friction piles,
*Proceedings, European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering*,**1.2**, pp. 479–488.Google Scholar - Janbu, N., Grande, L. and Eggereide, K. (1976), Effective stress stability analysis for gravity structures,
*Proceedings, Behavior of Offshore Structure BOSS 76*, pp. 449-466.Google Scholar - Jurgenson, L. (1934), The application of theories of elasticity and plasticity of foundation problems,
*Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Contributions to Soil Mechanics 1925–1940*, pp. 148-183.Google Scholar - Karlsrud, K. and Haugen, T. (1985), Behaviour of piles in clay under cyclic axial loading—Results of field model tests,
*Behavior of Offshore Structures, BOSS 85*, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 589–600.Google Scholar - Karlsrud, K., Nadim, R., and Haugen, T. (1986), Piles in clay under cyclic axial loading—Field tests and computational modeling,
*Proceedings 3d. International Conference on Numerical Methods in Offshore Piling*, Nantes, France, pp. 165-190.Google Scholar - Kézdi, A. (1975), Pile foundations,
*Foundation Engineering Handbook*, eds. H. F. Winterkorn and H. Y. Fang, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, N.Y., pp. 556–600.Google Scholar - Kjekstad, O. and Stub, F. (1978), Installation of the ELF TCP-2 Condeep Platform at the Frigg Field,
*Proceedings of the European Offshore Petroleum Conference*, London,**1**, pp. 121-130.Google Scholar - Kraft, L. M., Jr., Focht, J. A., Jr., and Amerasinghe, S. F. (1981), Friction capacity of piles driven into clay,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**107**, No. GT-11, pp. 1521–1541.Google Scholar - Lade, P. V. and Lee, K. L. (1976),
*Engineering Properties of Soils*, Engineering Report, UCLA-ENG-7652.Google Scholar - Lauritzsen, R. and Schjetne, K. (1976), Stability calculations for offshore gravity structures,
*Proceedings 6th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*,**1**, OTC 2431, pp. 75-82.Google Scholar - Lee, K. L. (1974),
*Earthquake Induced Permanent Deformations of Embankments*, Engineering Report 7498, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar - Lo, M. B. (1967), Discussion to paper by Y. O. Beredugo,
*Canadian Geotechnical Journal*,**4**, No. 3, pp. 353–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Lord, J. A. (1976), A comparison of three types of driven cast in situ piles in chalk,
*Geotechnique*,**26**, No. 1, pp. 73–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Lowery, L. et al. (1969),
*Pile Driving Analysis State of the Art*, Research Report 33-13 (final), Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, Texas.Google Scholar - Lunne, T. and St. John, H. (1979), The use of cone penetration tests to compute penetration resistance of steel skirts underneath North Sea gravity platforms,
*Proceedings of the European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering*.Google Scholar - Matlock, H. (1970), Correlations for design of laterally loaded piles in soft clay,
*Proceedings, Second Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, pp. 577-587.Google Scholar - Matlock, H. and Foo, S. C. (1979), Axial analysis of pile using a hysteretic and degrading soil model,
*Proceedings Conference Numerical Methods in Offshore Piling*, ICE, London, pp. 165-185.Google Scholar - Matlock, H., Ingram, W. B., Kelley, A. E., and Bogard, D. (1980), Field tests of the lateral-load behavior of pile groups in soft clay, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, OTC 3871, pp. 163-174.Google Scholar
- Matsuo, M. (1967), Bearing capacity of anchor foundations,
*Soils and Foundations*,**8**, No. 1, pp. 18–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - McClelland, B. (1974), Design of deep penetration piles for ocean structures,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**100**, No. GT-7, pp. 709–747.Google Scholar - McClelland, B., Focht Jr., J. A., and Emrich, W. J. (1967), Problems in design and installation of heavily loaded pipe piles,
*Proceedings, Conference Civil Engineering in the Oceans*, ASCE, pp. 601-634.Google Scholar - McClelland, B., Focht Jr., J. A., and Emrich, W. J. (1969), Problems in design and installation of offshore piles,
*Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE*,**95**, No. SM-6, pp. 1491–1513.Google Scholar - McClelland, B. and Cox, W. R. (1976), Performance of pile foundations for offshore structures,
*Proceedings, First International Conference, Behavior of Offshore Structures*, Trondheim, Norway,**1**, pp. 528-544.Google Scholar - McClelland, B., Young, A. G., and Remmes, B. D. (1983), Avoiding jack-up rig foundation failure,
*Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Offshore and Nearshore Structures*, Bangkok, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 137–157.Google Scholar - Meyerhof, G. G. (1959), Compaction of sand and bearing capacity of piles,
*Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE*,**85**, No. SM-6, pp. 1–30.Google Scholar - Meyerhof, G. G. (1965), Shallow foundations,
*Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, ASCE*,**91**, No. SM-2, pp. 21–31.Google Scholar - Meyerhof, G. G. (1974), Ultimate bearing capacity of footings on sand overlying clay,
*Canadian Geotechnical Journal*,**11**, No. 2, pp. 223–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Meyerhof, G. G. (1976), Bearing capacity and settlement of pile foundations,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**102**, No. GT-3, pp. 197–228.Google Scholar - Meyerhof, G. G. and Adams, J. I. (1968), The ultimate uplift capacity of foundations,
*Canadian Geotechnical Journal*,**5**, No. 4, pp. 225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Meyerhof, G. G. and Hanna, A. M. (1978), Ultimate bearing capacity of foundations on layered soils under inclined load,
*Canadian Geotechnical Journal*,**15**, pp. 565–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Milz, E. A. and Broussard, D. E. (1972), Technical capabilities in offshore pipeline operations to maximize safety,
*Proceedings, Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas, Paper OTC 1711, pp. 122-133.Google Scholar - Mindlin, R. D. (1936), Force at a point in the interior of a semi-infinite solid,
*Journal of Applied Physics*,**7**, No. 5, pp. 195–202.Google Scholar - Minor, L. E. (1966), Improving deep sea pipeline techniques,
*Offshore*, June, pp. 54-57.Google Scholar - Mitchell, D. E. (1984), Liquefaction slides in hydraulically placed sands,
*Proceedings, Fourth International Symposium on Landslides*, Toronto, Ontario.Google Scholar - Mitchell, R. J., Sangrey, D. A., and Webb, G. S. (1972), Foundations in the crust of sensitive clay deposits,
*Proceedings on Performance of Earth and Earth Supported Structures*, Purdue University, Indiana, ASCE,**1**, No. 2, pp. 1051–1072.Google Scholar - Moretto, O. (1971), Cimientos Profundos; Sintesis esscogida del estado actual del conocimiento sobre La interaction con el suelo,
*Raavista Latinoamericana de Geotecnica*,**1**, No. 2, pp. 96–141.Google Scholar - Morgenstern, N. R. (1967), Submarine slumping and the initiation of turbidity currents,
*Marine Geotechnique*, ed. A. F. Richards, University of Illinois Press, pp. 189-220.Google Scholar - Mroz, Z., Norns, V. A., and Zienkiewcz, O. C. (1978), An anisotropic model for soils and its applications to cyclic loading,
*International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics*,**2**, pp. 203–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Murff, J. D. (1980), Pile capacity in a softening soil,
*Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics*,**4**, No. 2, pp. 185–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Murff, J. D. (1987), Pile capacity in calcareous sands: State of the art,
*Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE*,**113**, No. 5, Paper No. 21509, pp. 490–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Nauroy, J. F. and Le Tirant, P. (1983), Model tests of piles in calcareous sands,
*Offshore Engineering Practice*, ASCE, pp. 356-369.Google Scholar - Nauroy, J. F., Brucy, F., and Le Tirant, P. (1985), Static and cyclic load tests on a drilled and grouted pile in calcareous sand,
*BOSS 85*, pp. 577-587.Google Scholar - Noorany, I. (1985), Classification of marine sediments,
*Proceedings, 2d Shanghai Symposium on Marine Geotechnology and Nearshore/Offshore Structures*, Tongji University Press, Shanghai, pp. 168–195.Google Scholar - Nordlund, R. L. (1963), Bearing capacity of piles in cohesionless soils,
*Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE*,**89**, No. SM-3, pp. 1–35.Google Scholar - O’Neill, M. W. (1983), Group action in offshore piles,
*Proceedings, Conference on Geotechnical Practice in Offshore Engineering*, ASCE, pp. 25-64.Google Scholar *Offshore Engineer*(1986), Valhalla is sinking too, December 5.Google Scholar- Poulos, H. G. (1971), Behavior of laterally loaded piles: II—Pile groups,
*Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE*,**97**, No. SM-5, pp. 733–751.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. (1979), Development of an analysis for cyclic axial loading of piles,
*Proceedings, 3d. International Conference Numerical Methods in Geomechanics*, Aachen,**4**, pp. 1513-1530.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. (1981a), Pile foundations subjected to lateral loading,
*Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Coastal and Offshore Structures, Bangkok, pp. 79-93*.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. (1981b), Pile foundations subjected to vertical loading,
*Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Coastal and Offshore Structures*, Bangkok, pp. 61–78.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. (1981c), Cyclic axial response of single pile,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**107**, No. GT-7, pp. 41–58.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. (1982), Influence of cyclic loading on axial pile response,
*Proceedings 2d Conference on Numerical Methods in Offshore Piling*, Austin, Texas.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. (1983), Cyclic axial response—alternative analyses,
*Proceedings, Geotechnical Practice in Offshore Engineering*, ed. S. G. Wright, ASCE, pp. 403-421.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. (1988), Cyclic stability diagram for axially loaded piles,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**114**, No. 8, pp. 877–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Poulos, H. G. and Davis, E. H. (1968), The settlement behavior of single axially loaded incompressible piles and piers,
*Geotechnique*,**XVIII**, No. 3, pp. 351–371.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. and Davis, E. H. (1974),
*Elastic Solutions for Soil and Rock Mechanics*, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. and Davis, E. H. (1980),
*Pile Foundation Analysis and Design*, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Poulos, H. G. and Lee, C. Y. (1988), Model test on grouted piles in calcareous sediment,
*Proceedings, International Conference on Calcareous Sediments*, Perth, Australia, pp. 255-261.Google Scholar - Prevost, J. H. and Hughes, T. J. R. (1978), Mathematical modelling of cyclic soil behavior,
*Proceedings of the Specialty Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics*, ASCE, Pasadena, California,**2**, pp. 746-761.Google Scholar - Puesch, A. A. (1982), Basic data for the design of tension piles in silty soils,
*Proceedings, 3d. BOSS Conference, Massachusetts*,**1**, pp. 147-157.Google Scholar - Randolph, M. F. and Murphy, B. S. (1985), Shaft capacity of driven piles in clay,
*Proceedings 17th Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas, OTC 4883, pp. 371-378.Google Scholar - Reddy, A. S. and Srinivasan, R. J. (1967), Bearing capacity of footings on layered clays,
*Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE*,**93**, No. SM-2, pp. 83–99.Google Scholar - Reese, L. C. (1977), Laterally loaded piles: Program documentation,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**103**, No. GT-4, pp. 287–305.Google Scholar - Reese, L. C., Cox, W. R., and Koop, F. D. (1974), Analysis of laterally loaded piles in sand,
*Proceedings, Sixth Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, OTC paper No. 2080, pp. 473-483.Google Scholar - Reese, L. C., Cox, W. R., and Koop, F. D. (1975), Field testing and analysis of laterally loaded piles in stiff clay,
*Proceedings, Seventh Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, OTC paper No. 2312, pp. 671-675.Google Scholar - Reese, L. C. and Cox, W. R. (1976), Pullout tests of piles in sand,
*Proceedings, Eighth Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, pp. 527-538.Google Scholar - Reese, L. C. and Wang, S. T. (1986), Method of analysis of piles under lateral loading,
*Marine Geotechnology and Nearshore/Offshore Structures*, eds. R. C. Chaney and H. Y. Fang, ASTM STP 923, pp. 199-211.Google Scholar - Richards, A. F. (ed.) (1988),
*Vane Shear Strength Testing in Soils: Field and Laboratory Studies*, ASTM STP 1014.Google Scholar - Richardson, G. N. and Chaney, R. C. (1986), Evaluation of seismic lateral pile capacity, Mark Clark expressway,
*Third U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering*, Charleston, S.C.Google Scholar - Rowe, R. K. and Davis, E. H. (1982), The behavior of anchor plates in sand,
*Geotechnique*,**32**, No. 1, pp. 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Samson, C. H., Hirsch, T. J., and Lowry, L. L. (1963), Computer study of the dynamic behavior of piling,
*Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE*,**89**, No. ST-4, pp. 413–449.Google Scholar - Saxena, S. K. and Lastric, R. M. (1978), Static properties of lightly cemented sand,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**104**, No. GT-12, pp. 1449–1464.Google Scholar - Schjetne, K., Andersen, K. H., Lauritzsen, R., and Hansteen, O. E. (1979), Foundation engineering for offshore gravity structures,
*Marine Geotechnology*,**3**, No. 4, pp. 369–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Scott, R. F., Tsai, C.-F., Steussy, D., and Ting, J. M. (1982), Full-scale dynamic lateral pile tests,
*14th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas,**1**, pp. 435-450.Google Scholar - Seibold, E. and Berger, W. H. (1982),
*The Sea Floor*, Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Shaheen, W. A., Chang, C. S., and Demars, K. R. (1987), Field evaluation of plate anchor theories in sand,
*Proceedings, Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas, Paper No. OTC 5419, pp. 521-530.Google Scholar - Shepard, F. P. (1963),
*Submarine Geology*, 2d ed., Harper and Row, New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Shinde, S. B., Crooks, J. H. A., James, D. A., and Williams Fitzpatrick, S. (1986), Geotechnical design for Beaufort Sea structures,
*Proceedings, Third Canadian Conference on Marine Geotechnical Engineering*, St. John’s Nfld.,**1**, pp. 347-362.Google Scholar - Skempton, A. W. (1951), The bearing capacity of clays,
*Proceedings, Building Research Congress*,**1**, pp. 180–189.Google Scholar - Skempton, A. W. (1953), Discussion: Piles and pile foundations, settlement of pile foundations,
*Proceedings 3d International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering*, Zurich,**3**, p. 172.Google Scholar - Sladen, J. A., D’Hollander, R. D., Krahn, J., and Mitchell, D. E. (1985), Back analysis of the Nerlerk Berm liquefaction slides,
*Canadian Geotechnical Journal*,**22**, pp. 579–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Smith, E. A. L. (1962), Pile driving analysis by the wave equation,
*Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers*,**127**, Part 1, pp. 1145–1193.Google Scholar - Smith, I. M. (1979), A survey of numerical methods in offshore piling,
*Proceedings of the Conference on Numerical Methods in Offshore Piling*, Institution of Civil Engineers, London, pp. 1-8.Google Scholar - Sullivan, W. R., Reese, L. C., and Fenske, C. W. (1979), Unified method for analysis of laterally loaded piles in clay,
*Proceedings of the Conference on Numerical Methods in Offshore Piling*, Institution of Civil Engineers, London, pp. 135-146.Google Scholar - Taylor, R. J., Jones, D., and Beard, R. M. (1975),
*Handbook for Uplift Resisting Anchors*, U.S. Navy, Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, Calif.Google Scholar - Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R. B. (1967),
*Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice*, 2d ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Thomas, H. G. (1978), Discussion of “Soil restraint against horizontal motion of pipes,” by J. M. E. Audibert and K. J. Nyman,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**10**, No. GT-9, pp. 1214-1216.Google Scholar - Tomlinson, M. J. (1977),
*Pipe Design and Construction Practice*, Viewpoint Publications, London.Google Scholar - Toolan, F. E. and Fox, D. A. (1977), Geotechnical planning of piled foundations for offshore platforms,
*Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers*, London, Part I,**62**, pp. 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Toolan, F. E. and Coutts, J. S. (1980), The application of laboratory and in situ data to the design of deep foundations,
*Offshore Site Investigations*, ed. D. A. Ardus, Graham and Trotman, London, pp. 231–246.Google Scholar - Toolan, F. E. and Ims, B. W. (1988), Impact of recent changes in the API recommended practice for offshore piles in sand and clays,
*Underwater Technology*,**14**, No. 1, pp. 9–29.Google Scholar - Trautman, C. H., O’Rourke, T. D., and Kulhawy, F. H. (1985), Uplift force-displacement response of buried pipe,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**111**, No. GT-9, pp. 1061–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Van Weele, A. F. (1979), Pile bearing capacity under cyclic loading compared with that under static loading,
*Proceedings 2d Behavior of Offshore Structures Symposium*(*BOSS*), London, pp. 475-488.Google Scholar - Vesic, A. S. (1965), Ultimate loads and settlement of deep foundations in sand,
*Proceedings of Symposium on Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Foundations*, Duke University, Durham, N.C., pp. 53–68.Google Scholar - Vesic, A. S. (1967),
*A Study of Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations*, Final Report Project B-189, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. pp. 231-236.Google Scholar - Vesic, A. S. (1969), Experiments with instrumented pile groups in sand,
*Proceedings of Symposium on Performance of Deep Foundations*, ASTM STP 444, pp. 177-222.Google Scholar - Vesic, A. S. (1970), Load transfer in pile-soil system,
*Design and Installation of Pile Foundation and Cellular Structures*, eds. H. Y. Fang and T. D. Dismuke, Envo Publishing Co., Lehigh Valley, Pa., pp. 47–74.Google Scholar - Vesic, A. S. (1977),
*Design of Pile Foundations*, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis of Practice No. 42, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar - Vijayvergiya, V. N. (1977), Soil-pile interaction for offshore structures,
*Proceedings 14th Annual Meeting of the Society of Engineering Science, Inc.*, Bethlehem, Pa.Google Scholar - Vijayvergiya, V. A. and Focht Jr., J. A. (1972), A new way to predict capacity of piles in clay,
*Proceedings, 4th Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas,**2**, pp. 856-874.Google Scholar - Wang, M. C., Nacci, V. A., and Demars, K. R. (1975), Behavior of the underwater suction anchor in soil,
*Journal of Ocean Engineering*,**3**, No. 1, pp. 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Wang, M. C., Nacci, V. A., and Demars, K. R. (1977), Breakout capacity of model suction anchors in soil,
*Canadian Geotechnical Journal*,**14**, No. 2, pp. 246–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Watt, B. J. (1976), Gravity structures—installation and other problems,
*Offshore Soil Mechanics*, eds. P. George and D. Wood, Cambridge University Engineering Department and Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, London, pp. 285–305.Google Scholar - Werno, M., Juszkiewicz, and Inerowicz, M. (1987), Penetration of jack-up platform footings into the seabed,
*Marine Geotechnology*,**7**, No. 2, pp. 65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Winterkorn, H. F. and Fang, H. Y. (eds.) (1975),
*Foundation Engineering Handbook*, Van Nostrand and Reinhold Co., New York, N.Y.Google Scholar - Young, A. G., Kraft, L. M., and Focht, J. A. (1975), Geotechnical considerations in foundation design of offshore gravity structures,
*Offshore Technology Conference*,**III**, pp. 367-386.Google Scholar - Young, A. G., House, H. F., Herlfrich, S. C., and Thurner, D. (1981), Foundation performance of mat-supported jack-up rigs in soft clays,
*Proceedings, 13th Annual Offshore Technology Conference*, Houston, Texas,**4**, pp. 273-284.Google Scholar - Young, A. G., Remmes, B. D., and Meyer, B. J. (1984), Foundation performance of offshore jack-up drilling rigs,
*Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE*,**110**, No. 7, Paper No. 18996, pp. 841–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar