Advertisement

Diet and Gut Morphology in Primates

  • David J. Chivers
  • C. M. Hladik

Abstract

There has been much discussion of the conspicuous differences in (1) body size and shape, (2) efficiency of the gastro-intestinal tract and (3) behavioural biology between those mammals subsisting mainly on animal matter and those that graze or browse on grass and (e.g. Moir, 1968; Vallenas et al., 1971; Jolly, 1972; Jarman, 1974; Wilson, 1975; Janis, 1976; Clutton-Brock, 1977). The former have been labelled as “insectivores” or “carnivores”, according to the kind of animal matter consumed, thereby following taxonomic, and thus evolutionary, relationships; the latter are usually called “herbivores”, irrespective of the kind of plant matter eaten, even though the distinction between ruminating, refecting and other herbivores has been stressed in the wide debate. More precise subdivisions are necessary, therefore, although these gross categories still have a use, especially in correlative studies; the two extremes are best labelled, however, “faunivory” and “folivory”, respectively.

Keywords

Body Size Animal Matter Japanese Monkey Potential Volume Range Behaviour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Chivers, D.J. (1974) The Siamang in Malaya: a field study of a primate in tropical rain forest. Contrib. primatoZ. 4: 1335.Google Scholar
  2. Chivers, D.J. and Hladik, C.M. (1980) Morphology of the gastrointestinal tract in primates: comparisons with other mammals in relation to diet.Google Scholar
  3. Clutton-Brock, T.H. ( 1977, ed.) “Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes”. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  4. Curtin, S.H. (1976) “Niche Differentiation and Social Organization in Sympatric Malaysian Colobines”. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  5. Gautier-Hion, A. (1978) Food niches and coexistence in sympatric primates in Gabon. In “Recent Advances in Primatology, vol. 1, Behaviour” ( D.J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), pp. 269–286. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  6. Goodall, A.G. (1977) Feeding and ranging behaviour of a mountain gorilla group in the Tshibinda-Kahuzi region (Zaire). In “Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes” ( T.H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), pp. 449–479. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  7. Hladik, A. and Hladik, C.M. (1969) Rapports trophiques entre végétation et primates dans la forêt de Barro Colorado (Panama). Terre et Vie 26: 25–117.Google Scholar
  8. Hladik, C.M. (1967) Surface relatif du tractus digestif de quelques primates, morphologie de villosités intestinales et corrélations avec le régime alimentaire. Mammalia 31: 120147Google Scholar
  9. Hladik, C.M. (1973) Alimentation et activité d’un groupe de chimpanzés reintrodiut en forêt gabonaise. Terre et Vie 27: 343–413.Google Scholar
  10. Hladik, C.M. (1977a) Chimpanzees of Gabon and ghimpanzees of Gombe. In “Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes” ( T.H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), pp. 595–601. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  11. Hladik, C.M. (1977b) A comparative study of feeding strategies of two sympatric species of leaf monkey: Presbytis senex and Presbytis entellus. In “Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes” ( T.H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), pp. 481–501. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  12. Hladik, C.M. (1978) Diet and ecology of prosimians. In “The Study of Prosimian Behaviour” ( G.A. Doyle and R.D. Martin, eds.), pp. 307–357. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  13. Hladik, C.M. and Chivers, D.J. (1978) Concluding discussion: ecological factors and specific behavioural patterns determining primate diet. In “Recent Advances in Primatology, vol. 1, Behaviour” ( D.J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), pp. 433–444. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  14. Hladik, C.M. and Hladik, A. (1972) Disponibilité alimentaires de domaines vitaux des primates â Ceylan. Terre et Vie 26: 149–215.Google Scholar
  15. Hladik, C.M., Hladik, A., Bousset, J., Valdebouze, P., Viroben, G. and Delort-Laval, J. (1971) Le régime alimentaire des primates de l’île de Barro Colorado (Panama): résultats des analyses quantitatives. Folia primatol. 16: 85–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iwamoto, T. (1974) A bioeconomic study on a provisioned troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) at Koshima Islet, Miyazaki. Primates 15: 241–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Iwamoto, T. (1978) Food availability as a limiting factor on population density of the Japanese macaque and gelada baboon. In “Recent Advances in Primatology, vol. 1, Behaviour” ( D.J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), pp. 286–303. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  18. Janis, C. (1976) The evolutionary strategy of the Equidae and the origins of rumen and caecal digestion. Evolution 30: 757774.Google Scholar
  19. Jarman, P.J. (1974) The social organisation of antelope in relation to their ecology. Behaviour 48: 215–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jolly, A. (1972) “The Evolution of Primate Behaviour”. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Kay, R.F. (1973) “Mastication, Molar Tooth Structure and Diet in Primates”. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University.Google Scholar
  22. Kleiber, M. (1961) “The Fire of Life”. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  23. MacKinnon, J.R. and MacKinnon, K.S. (1978) Comparative feeding ecology of six sympatric primates in West Malaysia. In “Recent Advances in Primatology, vol. 1, Behaviour” ( D.J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), pp. 305–321. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  24. McMahon, T. (1973) Size and shape in biology. Science, N.Y. 179: 1201–1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moir, R.J. (1968) Ruminant digestion and evolution. In “Handbook of Physiology”, section 6 (alimentary canal) 5: 2673–2694.Google Scholar
  26. Raemaekers, J.J. (1977) “Gibbons and Trees: Comparative Ecology of Siamang and Lar Gibbons”. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  27. Ripley, S. (1979) Environmental grain, niche diversification and positional behaviour in Neogene primates. In “Environment, Morphology and Behavior: Dynamic Interactions in Primates” ( H. Preuschoft and M.E. Morbeck, eds.), pp. 37–74. Fischer, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1972) “How Animals Work”. University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  29. Struhsaker, T.T. (1978) Food habits of five monkey species in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. In “Recent Advances in Primatology, vol. 1, Behaviour” ( D.J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), pp. 225–248. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  30. Suzuki, A. (1965) An ecological study of wild Japanese monkeys in snowy areas, focused on their food habits. Primates 7: 481–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tucker, V.A. (1970) Energetic cost of locomotion in animals. Comp. Biochem. PhysioZ. 34: 841–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vallenas, A., Cummings, J.F. and Munnell, J.F. (1971) A gross study of the compartmentalised stomach of two New World camelids, the llama and guanaco. J. Morph. 134: 399–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilson, E.O. (1975) “Sociobiology: the New Synthesis”. Belknap, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Chivers
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. M. Hladik
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Sub-dept. of Veterinary AnatomyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Museum National d’Histoire NaturelleC.N.R.S.BrunoyFrance

Personalised recommendations