Habitat Richness, Foraging Range and Diet in Chimpanzees and Some Other Primates

  • Adriaan Kortlandt


Last year I made some discoveries 15 years too late. That is, I made them 15 years later than I might have done had I more carefully scrutinized the then current literature. In the present paper I shall report on these findings.


Vervet Monkey Wild Chimpanzee Mountain Gorilla Floristic Richness Marginal Habitat 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ady, P.H. and Hazlewood, A.H. (1965) “Oxford Regional Economic Atlas, Africa”. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. AETFAT (1958/59) “Vegetation Map of Africa - Carte de la Végétation de l’Afrique”. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  3. Albrecht, H. and Dunnett, S.C. (1971) “Chimpanzees in Western Africa”. Piper, Munchen.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, C.M. (1981) Intertroop relations of Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus). Int. J. Primatol. 2: 285–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aubréville, A. (1949) “Climats, Forêts et Désertification de l’Afrique Tropicale”. Soc. Ed. Géogr. Marit. Col., Paris.Google Scholar
  6. Axelrod, D.I. (1972) Ocean-floor spreading in relation to ecosystem- atic problems. In “A Symposium on Ecosystematics” (Occ. Pap. 4) ( R.T. Allen and F.C. James, eds.), pp. 15–68. University of Arkansas Museum, Fayetteville.Google Scholar
  7. Axelrod, D.I. and Raven, P.H. (1978) Late Cretaceous and Tertiary vegetation history of Africa. In “Biogeography and Ecology of Southern Africa” (Monogr. biol. 31) ( M.J.A. Werger, ed.), pp. 77–130. Junk, The Hague.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Badrian, N., Badrian, A. and Susman, R.L. (1981) Preliminary observations on the feeding behavior of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest of Central Zaire. Primates 22: 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bahuchet, S. (1978) “Introduction â l’ethnoécologie des Pygmées Aka de la Lobaye Empire Centrafricain”. Muséum National d’ Histoire Naturelle, Paris.Google Scholar
  10. Baldwin, P.J. (1979) The natural history of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), at Mt. Assirik, Senegal. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Stirling.Google Scholar
  11. Baur, G.N. (1964) “The Ecological Basis of Rainforest Management”. Forestry Commission of New South Wales.Google Scholar
  12. Bournonville, D. de (1967) Contribution à l’étude du Chimpanzé en République de Guinée. Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire 29A: 1188–1269.Google Scholar
  13. Busse, C.D. (1977) Do chimpanzees hunt cooperatively? Am. Nat. 112: 767–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Busson, F.F. (1965) “Étude chimique et biologique des végétaux alimentaires de l’Afrique noire de l’Ouest dans leurs rapports avec le milieu géographique et humain”. (Thése). Leconte, Marseille.Google Scholar
  15. Cailleux, A. (1953) “Biogéographie Mondiale”. Presses Universitaires France, Paris.Google Scholar
  16. Casimir, M.J. (1975) Feeding ecology and nutrition of an eastern gorilla group in the Mt. Kahuzi region (République du Zaire). Folia primatol. 24: 81–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Casimir, M.J. and Butenandt, E. (1973) Migration and core area shifting in relation to some ecological factors in a mountain gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Mt. Kahuzi region (République du Zaire). Z. Tierpsychol. 33: 514–522.Google Scholar
  18. CCTA/CSA (1961) “Climatological Atlas of Africa”. CCTA/CSA ( Commission for Technical Co-operation in Africa South of the Sahara ), Lagos.Google Scholar
  19. Chalmers, N.R. (1968) Group composition, ecology and daily activities of free living mangabeys in Uganda. Folia primatol. 8: 247–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clutton-Brock, T.H. (1972) Feeding and ranging behaviour of the red colobus monkey. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. Clutton-Brock, T.H. (1974) Primate social organisation and ecology. Nature 250: 539–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clutton-Brock, T.H. (ed.) (1977) “Primate Ecology”. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  23. Clutton-Brock, T.H. and Gillett, J.B. (1979) A survey of forest composition in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 17: 131–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clutton-Brock, T.H. and Harvey, P.H. (1977) Species differences in feeding and ranging behaviour in primates. In “Primate Ecology” ( T.H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), pp. 557–584. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  25. Dalziel, J.M. (1937) The useful plants of West tropical Africa. Appendix to: Hutchinson, J. and Dalziel, J.M., “Flora of West Tropical Africa”. Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administration, London.Google Scholar
  26. Eggeling, W.J. (1947) Observations on the ecology of the Budongo rain forest, Uganda. J. Ecol. 34: 20–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evrard, C. (1968) “Recherches Ecologiques sur le Peuplement Forestier des Sols Hydromorphes de la Cuvette Centrale Congolaise”. (Sér. scient. 110.) Publ. I.N.E.A.C.Google Scholar
  28. Fineg, J., Prine, J.R., Van Riper, D.C. and Day, P.W. (1967) A new concept in chimpanzee management for research. In “Neue Ergebnisse der Primatologie–Progress in Primatology” ( D. Starck, R. Schneider and H.-J. Kuhn, eds.), pp. 345–356. Fischer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  29. Fossey, D. (1974) Observations on the home range of one group of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Anim. Behay. 22: 568–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fossey, D. (1976) The behaviour of the mountain gorilla. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  31. Fossey, D. (1981) The imperiled mountain gorilla. Nat. Geogr. Mag. 159: 501–523.Google Scholar
  32. Fossey, D. and Harcourt, A.H. (1977) Feeding ecology of free-ranging mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). In “Primate Ecology” ( T.H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), pp. 415–447. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  33. Galat, G. et Galat-Luong, A. (1977) Démographie et régime alimentaire d’une troupe de Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus en habitat marginal au nord Sénégal. Terre et Vie 31: 557–577.Google Scholar
  34. Galdikas, B.M.F. (1978) Orangutan adaptation at Tanjung Puting Reserve, Central Borneo. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  35. Gaulin, S.J.C. and Konner, M. (1977) On the natural diet of primates, including humans. In “Nutrition and the Brain” ( R.J. Wurtman and J.J. Wurtman, eds.), pp. 2–86. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Gautier-Hion, A., Emmons, L.H. and Dubost, G. (1980) A comparison of the diets of three major groups of primary consumers of Gabon (primates, squirrels and ruminants). Oecologia 45: 182–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goodall, A. (1977) Feeding and ranging behaviour of a mountain gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the TshibindaKahuzi region (Zaire). In “Primate Ecology” ( T.H. CluttonBrock, ed.), pp. 449–479. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  38. Hall, J.B. and Swaine, M.D. (1981) “Distribution and Ecology of Vascular Plants in a Tropical Rain Forest”. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  39. Hall, K.R.L. (1966) Behaviour and ecology of the wild patas monkey, Erythrocebus patas, in Uganda. J. ZooZ. 148: 15–87.Google Scholar
  40. Hall, K.R.L. (1966) The publication year 1965 stated in the paper is a printing error. Reprinted 1968 in: Jay, P.C. (ed.), “Primates”, pp. 32–119. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Hamilton, A.C. (1982) “Environmental History of East Africa”. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  42. Harding, R.S.O. (1981) An order of omnivores: Nonhuman primate diets in the wild. In “Omnivorous Primates” ( R.S.O. Harding and G. Teleki, eds.), pp. 191–214. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Heinz, H.J. and Maguire, B. (1974) “The Ethno-Biology of the Ikó Bushmen”. (Cocas. Pap. 1.) Botswana Society, Gaborone.Google Scholar
  44. Hladik, C.M. (1973) Alimentation et activité d’un groupe de chimpanzés réintroduits en forêt gabonaise. Terre et Vie 27: 343–413.Google Scholar
  45. Hladik, C.M. (1981) Diet and the evolution of feeding strategies among forest primates. In “Omnivorous Primates” ( R.S.O. Harding and G. Teleki, eds.), pp. 215–254. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Hladik, A. et Hallé, N. (1973) Catalogue des phanérogames du Nord-Est du Gabon. Adansonia, sér. 2, 13: 527–544.Google Scholar
  47. Hladik, C.M., Viroben, G. (1974) L’alimentation protéique du Chimpanzé dans son environnement forestier naturel. C. r. Acad. Sc. Paris 279D: 1475–1478.Google Scholar
  48. Homewood, K.M. (1978) Feeding strategy of the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus galeritus)(Mammalia: Primates). J. ZooZ. 186: 375–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Izawa, K. (1970) Unit groups of chimpanzees and their nomadism in the savanna woodland. Primates 11: 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Izawa, K. and Itani, J. (1966) Chimpanzees in Kasakati Basin, Tanganyika. (I) Ecological study in the rainy season 19631964. Kyoto Univ. Afr. Stud. 1: 73–156.Google Scholar
  51. Kano, T. (1971) The chimpanzee of Filabanga, Western Tanzania. Primates 12: 229–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kano, T. (1972) Distribution and adaptation of the chimpanzee on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. Kyoto Univ. Afr. Studies 7: 37–129.Google Scholar
  53. Kawanaka, K. (1982) Further studies on predation by chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. Primates 23: 364–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kingdon, J. (1971) “East African Mammals 1”. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  55. Klein, D. (1978) The diet and reproductive cycle of a population of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
  56. Kortlandt, A. (1962) Chimpanzees in the wild. Scient. Amer. 206: 5, 128–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kortlandt, A. (1965) “Some Results of a Pilot Study on Chimpanzee Ecology”. Zoologisch Laboratorium, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  58. Kortlandt, A. (1966) Chimpanzee ecology and laboratory management. Lab. Prim. Newsl. 5, 3: 1–11.Google Scholar
  59. Kortlandt, A. (1967a) Reply to comments by G.H. Bourne and J. Moor-Jankowski on: Chimpanzee ecology and laboratory management. Lab. Prim. News Z. 6, 4: 1–13.Google Scholar
  60. Kortlandt, A. (1967b) Experimentation with chimpanzees in the wild. In “Neue Ergebnisse der Primatologie–Progress in Primatology” ( D. Starck, R. Schneider and H.-J. Kuhn, eds.), pp. 208–224. Fischer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  61. Kortlandt, A. (1968) Handgebrauch bei freilebenden Schimpansen. In “Handgebrauch und Verständigung bei Affen und Frühmenschen” ( B. Rensch, ed.), pp. 59–102. Huber, Bern.Google Scholar
  62. Kortlandt, A. (1972) “New Perspectives on Ape and Human Evolut- ion”. Stichting voor Psychobiologie, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  63. Kortlandt, A. (1974a) New perspectives on ape and human evolution. A CA* book review. Curr. Anthrop. 15: 427–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kortlandt, A. (1974b) Das sog. Raubtierverhalten der Schimpansen: Beuteschlagen oder Kleinkrieg? (Lecture at 4. Ethologentreffen, Mainz, text available on request. )Google Scholar
  65. Kortlandt, A. (1975) Reply. In: On new perspectives on ape and human evolution. Curr. Anthrop. 16: 647–651.Google Scholar
  66. Kortlandt, A. (1976) Letters: Statements on pygmy chimpanzees. Lab. Prim. Newsi. 151: 15–17.Google Scholar
  67. Kortlandt, A. (1980) How might early hominids have defended themselves against large predators and food competitors? J. human Eva. 9: 79–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kortlandt, A. (1981) Comments to: C.R. Peters and E.M. O’Brien. The early hominid plant-food niche: Insights from an analysis of plant exploitation by Homo, Pan, and Papio in eastern and southern Africa. Curr. Anthrop. 22: 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kortlandt, A. (in press) Marginal habitats of chimpanzees. J. human Evol. Google Scholar
  70. Kortlandt, A. (in prep.) The chimpanzee: climbing down or rising higher?Google Scholar
  71. Kortlandt, A. and Bresser, E.G. (n.d.) “Experimentation with Forest-Dwelling Chimpanzees in the Congo, 1963”. (16 mm film, silent.) Stichting Film en Wetenschap, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  72. Kortlandt, A. and Kooij, M. (1963) Protohominid behaviour in primates. Symp. Zool. Soc. London 10: 61–88.Google Scholar
  73. Kortlandt, A. and Trevor, S. (n.d.) “Experimentation with Forest-Dwelling Chimpanzees in the Congo, 1964”. (16 mm film, silent.) Stichting Film en Wetenschap, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  74. Kortlandt, A. and van Zon, J.C.J. (1969) The present state of research on the dehumanization hypothesis of African ape evolution. Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. Primatol. 3: 10–13. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  75. Kuntz, R.E. and Myers, B.J. (1969) Parasitic protozoa, commensals and helminths of chimpanzees imported from the Republic of the Congo. Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. Primatol. 3: 184–190. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  76. Lawick-Goodall, J. van (1968) The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve. Anim. Behay. Monogr. 1: 161–311.Google Scholar
  77. Lebrun, J. (1960) Sur la richesse de la flore de divers territoires africains. Acad. Roy. Sciences Outre-Mer, Bull. Séances, N. s. 6, 4: 669–690.Google Scholar
  78. Lee, P.C. (1981) Ecological and social influences on development of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  79. Lee, R.B. (1979) “The !Kung San”. Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  80. Leistner, O.A. (1967) “The Plant Ecology of the Southern Kalahari”. (Bot. Surv. Mem. 38.) Government Printer, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  81. Letouzey, R. (1968) “Etude phytogéographique du Cameroun”. Lechevalier, Paris.Google Scholar
  82. Letouzey, R. (1978) Floristic composition and typology. In “Tropical Forest Ecosystems” ( UNESCO/UNEP/FAO, eds.), pp. 91–111. UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  83. Lieberman, D., Hall, J.B. and Swaine, M.D. (1979) Seed dispersal by baboons in the Shai Hills, Ghana. Ecology 60: 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McGrew, W.C., Tutin, C.E.G., Baldwin, P.J., Sharman, M.J. and Whiten, A. (1978) Primates preying upon vertebrates: new records from West Africa. Carnivore 13: 41–45.Google Scholar
  85. MacKinnon, J.R. (1972) The behaviour and ecology of the Orang-Utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  86. MacKinnon, J.R. (1974) The behaviour and ecology of wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Anim. Behay. 22: 3–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Maguire, B. (1978) The food plants of the:Khu Bushmen of North Eastern South West Africa. Unpublished M.Sc. dissertation, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  88. Malaisse, F., Freson, R., Goffinet, G. and Malaisse-Mousset, M. (1975) Litter fall and litter breakdown in Miombo. In “Tropical Ecological Systems” (Ecol. Stud. 11)(F.B. Golley and E. Medina, eds.), pp. 137–152. Springer, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mann, A.E. (1981) Diet and human evolution. In “Omnivorous Primates” ( R.S.O. Harding and G. Teleki, eds.), pp. 10–36. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Marshall, L. (1976) “The:Kung of Nyae Nyae”. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  91. Martin, D.P. (1978) Primates. In “Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine” ( M.E. Fowler, ed.), pp. 523–552. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  92. Milton, K. and May, M.L. (1976) Body weight, diet and home range area in primates. Nature 259: 459–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Monod, T. (1957) “Les Grandes Divisions Chorologiques de l’Afrique”. C.S.A./C.C.T.A., Londres.Google Scholar
  94. Monod, T. (1963) The Late Tertiary and Pleistocene in the Sahara and adjacent southerly regions. In “African Ecology and Human Evolution” ( F.C. Howell and F. Bourliére, eds.), pp. 117–229. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  95. Montgomery, G.G. (ed.) (1978) “The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores”. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  96. Moreau, R.E. (1942) The distribution of the chimpanzee in Tanganyika Territory. Tanganyika Notes Rec. 13: 1–4.Google Scholar
  97. Motte, E. (1979) Thérapeutique chez les Pygmées Aka de Mongoumba. In “Pygmées de Centrafrique” ( S. Bahuchet, ed.), pp. 77–108. SELAF, Paris.Google Scholar
  98. Myers, B.J. and Kuntz, R.E. (1972) A checklist of parasites and commensals reported for the chimpanzee (Pan). Primates 13: 433–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Napier, J.R. and Napier, P.H. (1967) “A Handbook of Living Primates”. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  100. Nees, P.O., Derse, P.H., Robaidek, E.S. and Regel, L. (1965) “The Biological Evaluation of Five Chimpanzee Diets used in Six-Week Feeding Trials”. Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Holloman AFB.Google Scholar
  101. Newman, J.L. (1970) “The Ecological Basis for Subsistence Change among the Sandawe of Tanzania”. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  102. Nishida, T. (1968) The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains. Primates 9: 167–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nishida, T. (1974) Ecology of wild chimpanzees. In “Human Ecology” ( Ohtsuka, Tanaka and Nishida, eds.), pp. 15–60. Kyoritsu-Shuppan, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  104. Nishida, T. (1979) The social structure of chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. In “The Great Apes” ( D.A. Hamburg and E.R. McCown, eds.), pp. 73–121. Benjamin, Menlo Park.Google Scholar
  105. Nishida, T. and Kawanaka, K. (1972) Inter-unit-group relationships among wild chimpanzees of the Mahali Mountains. Kyoto Univ. Afr. Stud. 7: 131–169.Google Scholar
  106. Nishida, T., Uehara, S. and Nyundo, R. (1979) Predatory behavior among wild chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. Primates 20: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nishida, T. and Uehara, S. (1981) Kitongwe name of plants: A preliminary listing. Afr. Study Monogr. 1: 109–131.Google Scholar
  108. Oliver, R. and Fage, J.D. (1979) “A Short History of Africa”. Penguin, Harmondsworth.Google Scholar
  109. Peters, C.R. and O’Brien, E.M. (1981) The early hominid plant-food niche: Insights from an analysis of plant exploitation by Homo, Pan and Papio in eastern and southern Africa. Curr. Anthrop. 22: 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Phillips-Conroy, J.E. (1982) Baboons, diet and disease: Food plant selection and schistosomiasis. Int. J. Primatol. 3:Google Scholar
  111. Plooij, F.X. (1978) Tool-use during chimpanzees’ bushpig hunt. Carnivore 12: 103–106.Google Scholar
  112. Rahm, U. (1966) Observations et expériences faites lors de captures de chimpanzés au Congo. Chronique IRSAC 12: 13–14.Google Scholar
  113. Rahm, U. (1967) Observations during chimpanzee captures in the Congo. In “Neue Ergebnisse der Primatologie–Progress in Primatology” ( D. Starck, R. Schneider and H.-J. Kuhn, eds.), pp. 195–207. Fischer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  114. Range, P. (1932–36) Die Flora des Namalandes I-X. In “Repertorium specierum novarum regni vegetabilis” (F. Fedde, ed.) (30), pp. 129–158; (33), pp. 1–22; (35), pp. 35–42; (36), pp. 1–19, 97–109, 241–264; (38), pp. 122–130, 256–280; (39), pp. 55–60, 283–287. Fedde, Berlin.Google Scholar
  115. Ransom, T.W. (1981) “Beach Troop of the Gombe”. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg.Google Scholar
  116. Reichenow, E. (1920) Den Wiederkäuer-Infusorien verwandte Formen aus Gorilla und Schimpanse. Arch. Protistenkunde 41: 1–33.Google Scholar
  117. Reynolds, V. and Reynolds, F. (1965) Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. In “Primate Behaviour” ( I. DeVore, ed.), pp. 368–424. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Richards, P.W. (1939) Ecological studies on the rain forest of southern Nigeria. J. Ecol. 27: 33–61.Google Scholar
  119. Richards, P.W. (1952) “The Tropical Rain Forest”. University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  120. Richards, P.W. (1973) Africa, the “Odd Man Out”. In “Tropical Forest Ecosystems in Africa and South America: A Comparative Review” ( B.J. Meggers, E.S. Ayensu and W.D. Duckworth, eds.), pp. 21–26. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.Google Scholar
  121. Rijksen, H.D. (1978a) Hunting behaviour in hominids: some ethological aspects. In “Recent Advances in Primatology” (D.J. Chivers and K.A. Joysey, eds.), (3), pp. 499–502. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  122. Rijksen, H.D. (1978b) “A Fieldstudy on Sumatran Orang Utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827)”. Veenman, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  123. Riper, D.C. Van, Day, P.W., Fineg, J. and Prine, J.R. (1966) Intestinal parasites of recently imported chimpanzees. Lab. Anim. Care 16: 360–363.Google Scholar
  124. Robaidek, E.S., Derse, P.H. and Nees, P.O. (1965) “The Protein Evaluation of Five Chimpanzee Diets when fed to Rats”. Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Holloman AFB.Google Scholar
  125. Rodman, P.S. (1977) Feeding behaviour of orang-utans of the Kutai Nature Reserve, East Kalimantan. In “Primate Ecology” ( T.H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), pp. 383–413. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  126. Sabater-Pi, G. (1960) Beitrag zur Biologie des Flachlandgorillas. Z. Säugetk. 25: 133–141.Google Scholar
  127. Schaller, G.B. (1963) “The Mountain Gorilla”. University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  128. Schnell, R. (1957) “Plantes Alimentaires et Vie Agricole de l’Afrique Noire”. Larose, Paris.Google Scholar
  129. Silberbauer, G.B. (1981) “Hunter and Habitat in the Central Kalahari Desert”. University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  130. Sillans, R. (1958) “Les Savanes de l’Afrique Centrale”. Lechevalier, Paris.Google Scholar
  131. Skinner, J.D. and Skinner, C.P. (1974) Predation on the cattle egret (BuZbulcus ibis) and masked weaver (PZoceus velatus) by the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops. S. Afr. J. Sci. 70: 157–158.Google Scholar
  132. Story, R. (1958) “Some Plants used by the Bushmen in Obtaining Food and Water”. (Bot. Surv. Mem. 30.) Dept. Agric., Pretoria.Google Scholar
  133. Street, F.A. and Grove, A.T. (1979) Global maps of lake-level fluctuations since 30,000 yr B.P. Quat. Research 12: 83–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Struhsaker, T.T. (1967) Ecology of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the Masai-Amboseli Game Reserve, Kenya. Ecology 48: 891–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Struhsaker, T.T. (1981) Forest and primate conservation in East Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 19: 99–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Struhsaker, T.T. and Gartlan, J.S. (1970) Observations on the behaviour and ecology of the Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in the Waza Reserve, Cameroon. J. Zool. 161: 49–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Strum, S.C. (1981) Processes and products of change: Baboon predatory behavior at Gilgil, Kenya. In “Omnivorous Primates” ( R.S.O. Harding and G. Teleki, eds.), pp. 255–302. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  138. Sugiyama, Y. (1968) Social organization of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest. Primates 9: 225–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sugiyama, Y. (1981) Observations on the population dynamics and behavior of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea, in 19791980. Primates 22: 435–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Suzuki, A. (1969) An ecological study of chimpanzees in a savanna woodland. Primates 10: 103–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Suzuki, A. (1971) Carnivority and cannibalism observed among forest-living chimpanzees. J. Anthrop. Soc. Nippon 79: 30–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Suzuki, A. (1975) The origin of hominid hunting: a primatological perspective. In “Socioecology and Psychology of Primates” ( R. Tuttle, ed.), pp. 259–278. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  143. Tanaka, J. (1980) “The San, Hunter-Gatherers of the Kalahari”. University Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  144. Tanno, T. (1981) Plant utilization of the Mbuti Pygmies–with special reference to their material culture and use of wild vegetable foods. Afr. Study Monogr. 1: 1–53.Google Scholar
  145. Teleki, G. (1973) “The Predatory Behavior of Wild Chimpanzees”. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg.Google Scholar
  146. Teleki, G. (1975) Primate subsistence patterns: collectorpredators and gatherer-hunters. J. hum. EvoZ. 4: 125–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Teleki, G., Hunt, E.E. and Pfifferling, J.H. (1976) Demographic observations (1963–1973) on the chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. J. hum. Eva. 5: 559–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Tornita, K. (1966) The sources of food for the Hadzapi tribe–The life of a hunting tribe in East Africa. Kyoto Univ. Afr. Stud. 1: 157–171.Google Scholar
  149. UNESCO/AETFAT (in press) “Vegetation Map of Africa - Carte de Végétation de l’Afrique” (compiled by F. White). UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  150. Waser, P. (1977) Feeding, ranging and group size in the mangabey Cercocebus albigena. In “Primate Ecology” ( T.H. CluttonBrock, ed.), pp. 183–222. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  151. White, F. (1965) The savanna woodlands of the Zambezian and Sudanian Domains. Webbia 19: 651–681.Google Scholar
  152. White, F. (in press) “The Vegetation of Africa”. UNESCO, Paris. Wickens, G.E. (1975) Changes in the climate and vegetation of the Sudan since 20,000 B.P. Boissiera 24a: 43–65.Google Scholar
  153. Williams, C.B. (1944) Some applications of the logarithmic series and the index of diversity to ecological problems. J. EcoZ. 32: 1–44.Google Scholar
  154. Wilman, M. (1946) “Preliminary Check-list of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of Griqualand West”. Deighton Bell, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  155. Woodburn, J.C. (1964) The social organisation of the Hadza of North Tanganyika. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  156. Wrangham, R.W. (1975) The behavioural ecology of Chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriaan Kortlandt
    • 1
  1. 1.Vakgroep Psychologie en Ethologie der DierenUniversiteit van AmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations