Advertisement

Food Acquisition and the Evolution of Positional Behaviour: The Case of Bipedalism

  • M. D. Rose

Abstract

Links between positional behaviour and food acquisition are undeniably important. As Napier (1970) puts it, an animal must move to feed and feed to move. With some interesting exceptions, however, positional behaviour is determined by the distribution rather than by the nature of food items. As it relates to food acquisition, an arboreal species’ locomotor behaviour is determined by the large scale distribution of food items within trees, and postural behaviour is determined by the local distribution of food, usually within the peripheral parts of a tree crown. While the terrestrial environment is in many ways less complex, the clumping of food items on or close to the ground similarly influences positional behaviour. It is thus the structures that intervene between an animal and its food that are important for positional behaviour. An animal of a given size and morphology will use a particular positional repertoire and style of performance of particular activities to select a set of these intervening structures as a substrate or superstrate during foraging and feeding. Changes in diet and in ways of acquiring food are therefore likely to have been important in the evolution of different types of positional morphology and behaviour to the extent that different sets of intervening structures were encountered. One cannot therefore expect positional morphology to track changing dietary patterns as closely as dental morphology may. As Ripley (1979) has shown, however, it is possible to explore the evolutionary links between positional behaviour and food acquisition. This paper explores some of these points with respect to the evolution of bipedalism.

Keywords

Food Acquisition Early Hominid Bipedal Walking Vertical Climbing Olduvai Gorge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aiello, L.C. (1981) Locomotion in the Miocene Hominoidea. In “Aspects of Human Evolution” ( C.B. Stringer, ed.), pp. 6397. Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  2. Aiello, L.C. and Day, M.H. (1982) The evolution of locomotion in the early Hominidae. In “Progress in Anatomy” ( R.J. Harrison and V. Navaratnam, eds.), vol. 2, pp. 81–97. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  3. Ashton, E.H., Flinn, R.M., Moore, W.J., Oxnard, C.E. and Spence, T.F. (1981) Further quantitative studies of form and function in the primate pelvis with special reference to Australopithecus. Trans. tool. Soc. Lond. 36: 1–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartholomew, G.A., Jr. and Birdsell, J.B. (1953) Ecology and the protohominids. Am. Anthropol. 55: 481–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boaz, N.T. (1980) A hominoid clavicle from the Mio-Pliocene of Sahabi, Libya. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 53: 49–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bush, M.E., Lovejoy, C.O., Johanson, D.C. and Coppens, Y. (1982) Hominid carpal, metacarpal, and phalangeal bones recovered from the Hadar Formation: 1974–1977 collections. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 57: 651–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christie, P. (1977) Form and function of the Afar ankle. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 47: 123.Google Scholar
  8. Conroy, G. and Fleagle, J.G. (1972) Locomotor behavior in living and fossil pongids. Nature 237: 103–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Day, M.H. (1976) Hominid postcranial material from Bed I, Olduvai Gorge. In “Human Origins” ( G.L. Isaac and E.R. McCown, eds.), pp. 363–374. Benjamin, Menlo Park.Google Scholar
  10. Day, M.H. (1978) Functional interpretations of the morphology of postcranial remains of early African hominids. In “Early Hominids of Africa” ( C.J. Jolly, ed.), pp. 311–345. Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  11. Day, M.H. and Napier, J.R. (1964) Hominid fossils from Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika: fossil foot bones. Nature 201: 967–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Day, M.H. and Wood, B.A. (1968) Functional affinities of the Olduvai Hominid 8 talus. Man 3: 440–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Day, M.H. and Wickens, E.H. (1980) Laetoli Pliocene hominid footprints and bipedalism. Nature 286: 385–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fleagle, J.G. and Kay, R.F. (1983) New interpretations of the phyletic position of Oligocene hominoids. In “New Interpretations of Ape and Human Ancestry” (R.L. Ciochon andGoogle Scholar
  15. R.F. Corruccini, eds.). Plenum, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Fleagle, J.G., Stern, J.T. Jr., Jungers, W.L., Susman, R.L., Vangor, A.K. and Wells, J.P. (1981) Climbing: a biomechanical link with brachiation and with bipedalism. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 359–373.Google Scholar
  17. Grine, F.E. (1981) Trophic differences between ‘gracile’ and ’robust’ australopithecines: a scanning electron microscope analysis of occlusal events. S. Afr. J. Sci. 77: 203–230.Google Scholar
  18. Harrison, T. (1982) Small Bodied Apes from the Miocene of East Africa. Unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, University of London.Google Scholar
  19. Hewes, G.W. (1961) Food transport and the origin of hominid bipedalism. Amer. Anthropol. 63: 687–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hewes, G.W. (1964) Hominid bipedalism: independent evidence for the food-carrying theory. Science 146: 416–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johanson, D.C. and White, T.D. (1979) A systematic assessment of early African hominids. Science 203: 321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johanson, D.C., Lovejoy, C.O., Kimble, W.H., White, T.D., Ward, S.C., Bush, M.E., Latimer, B.M. and Coppens, Y. (1982) Morphology of the Pliocene partial hominid skeleton (A.L. 288–1) from the Hadar Formation, Ethiopia. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 57: 403–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Latimer, B.M., Lovejoy, C.O., Johanson, D.C. and Coppens, Y. (1982) Hominid tarsal, metatarsal, and phalangeal bones recovered from the Hadar Formation: 1974–1977 collections. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 57: 701–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewis, 0.J. (1971) Brachiation and the early evolution of the Hominoidea. Nature 230: 577–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewis, 0.J. (1972a) Evolution of the hominoid wrist. In “The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of the Primates” ( R.H. Tuttle, ed.), pp. 207–222. Aldine-Atherton, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Lewis, 0.J. (1972b) Osteological features characterizing the wrists of monkeys and apes, with a reconsideration of this region in Dryopithecus (Proconsul) africanus. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 36: 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lewis, 0.J. (1974) The wrist articulations of the Anthropoidea. In “Primate Locomotion” ( F.A. Jenkins, Nr., ed.), pp. 143–169. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Lewis, 0.J. (1977) Joint remodelling and the evolution of the human hand. J. Anat. 123: 157–201.Google Scholar
  29. Lewis, 0.J. (1980) The joints of the evolving foot. Part III. The fossil evidence. J. Anat. 131: 275–298.Google Scholar
  30. Lewis, O.J. (1981) Functional morphology of the joints of the evolving foot. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 46: 169–185. Livingstone, F.B. (1962) Reconstructing man’s Pliocene pongid ancestor. Amer. AnthropoZ. 64: 301–305.Google Scholar
  31. Lovejoy, C.O. (1974) The gait of australopithecines. Yearb. Phys. Anthrop. 17: 147–161.Google Scholar
  32. Lovejoy, C.O. (1975) Biomechanical perspectives on the lower limb of early hominids. In “Primate Functional Morphology and Evolution” ( R.H. Tuttle, ed.), pp. 291–326. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  33. Lovejoy, C.O. (1978) A biomechanical review of the locomotor diversity of early hominids. In “Early Hominids of Africa” ( C.J. Jolly, ed.), pp. 403–429. Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  34. Lovejoy, C.O. (1981) The origin of man. Science 211: 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lovejoy, C.O., Heiple, K.G. and Burstein, A.H. (1973) The gait of Australopithecus. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 38: 757–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McHenry, H.M. (1978) Fore-and hindlimb proportions in Plio-Pleistocene hominids. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 49: 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McHenry, H.M. and Temerin, L.A. (1979) The evolution of hominid bipedalism: evidence from the fossil record. Yearb. Phys. Anthrop. 22: 105–131.Google Scholar
  38. Mittermeier, R.A. (1978) Locomotion and posture in AteZes geoffroyi and AteZes paniscus. Folia primatol. 30: 161–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mittermeier, R.A. and Fleagle, J.G. (1976) The locomotor and postural repertoire of AteZes geoffroyi and Colobus guereza, and a reconsideration of the locomotor category semibrachiation. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 45: 235–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morbeck, M.E. (1975) Dryopithecus africanus forelimb. J. hum. Evol. 4: 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Morbeck, M.E. (1983) Miocene hominoid discoveries from Rudabânya: implications from the postcranial fossils. In “New Interpretations of Ape and Human Ancestry” (R.L. Ciochon and R.F. Corruccini, eds.). Plenum, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  42. Napier, J.R. (1964) The evolution of bipedal walking in the hominids. Arch. Biot. 75: 673–708.Google Scholar
  43. Napier, J.R. (1967) Evolutionary aspects of primate locomotion. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 27: 333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Napier, J.R. (1970) Paleoecology and catarrhine evolution. In “Old World Monkeys: Evolution, Systematics and Behavior” ( J.R. Napier and P.H. Napier, eds.), pp. 53–95. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Napier, J.R. and Davis, P.R. (1959) The forelimb skeleton and associated remains of Proconsul africanus. Fossil Mammals of Africa 16: 1–70.Google Scholar
  46. Oxnard, C.E. (1968) A note of the Olduvai clavicular fragment. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 29: 429–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Oxnard, C.E. and Lisowski, F.P. (1980) Functional articulation of some hominoid foot bones: implications for the Olduvai (Hominid 8) foot. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 52: 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Preuschoft, H. (1973) Body posture and locomotion in some East African Miocene Dryopithecinae. In “Human Evolution” ( M.H. Day, ed.), pp. 13–46. Barnes and Noble, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Prost, J.H. (1980) Origin of bipedalism. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 52: 175–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ripley, S. (1967) The leaping of langurs: a problem in the study of locomotor adaptation. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 26: 149–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ripley, S. (1979) Environmental grain, niche diversification, and positional behavior in Neogene primates: an evolutionary hypothesis. In “Environment, Behavior, and Morphology: Dynamic Interactions in Primates” ( M.E. Morbeck, H. Preuschoft and N. Gomberg, eds.), pp. 37–74. Fischer, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Robinson, J.T. (1972) “Early Hominid Posture and Locomotion”. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  53. Robinson, J.T. (1978) Evidence for locomotor difference between gracile and robust early hominids from South Africa. In “Early Hominids of Africa” ( C.J. Jolly, ed.), pp. 441–457. Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  54. Rodman, P.S. and McHenry, H.M. (1980) Bioenergetics and the origin of hominid bipedalism. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 52: 103–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rollinson, J. and Martin, R.D. (1981) Comparative aspects of primate locomotion, with special reference to arboreal cercopithecines. Symp. tool. Soc. Lond. 48: 377–428.Google Scholar
  56. Rose, M.D. (1973) Quadrupedalism in primates. Primates 14: 337357.Google Scholar
  57. Rose, M.D. (1974) Postural adaptations in New and Old World monkeys. In “Primate Locomotion” ( F.A. Jenkins, Jr., ed.), pp. 201–222. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Rose, M.D. (1976) Bipedal behavior of olive baboons (Papio anubis) and its relevance to an understanding of the evolution of human bipedalism. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 44: 247–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rose, M.D. (1979) Positional behavior of natural populations: some quantitative results of a field study of Colobus guereza and Cercopithecus aethiops. In “Environment, Behavior, and Morphology: Dynamic Interactions in Primates” ( M.E. Morbeck, H. Preuschoft and N. Gomberg, eds.), pp. 7594. Fischer, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Rose, M.D. (1983) Miocene hominoid postcranial morphology: monkey-like, ape-like, neither, or both? In “New Interpretations of Ape and Human Ancestry” (R.L. Ciochon and R.F. Corruccini, eds.). Plenum, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  61. Schön, M. and Ziemer, L. (1973) Wrist mechanism and locomotor behavior of Dryopithecus (Proconsul) africanus. Fo lia primatol. 20: 1–11.Google Scholar
  62. Senut, B. (1981) “L’Humérus et ses Articulations chez les Hominidés Plio-Pléistocénes”. CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
  63. Sigmon, B.A. (1971) Bipedal behavior and the emergence of erect posture in man. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 34: 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Steudel, K. (1980) New estimates of early hominid body size. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 52: 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Straus, W.L. (1949) The riddle of man’s ancestry. Quart. Rev. Biol. 24: 200–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Straus, W.L. (1962) Fossil evidence of the evolution of the erect bipedal posture. Clin. Orthopaedics 25: 9–19.Google Scholar
  67. Struhsaker, T.T. (1967) Ecology of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the Masai-Amboseli Game Reserve, Kenya. Ecology 48: 891–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Susman, R.L. and Creel, N. (1979) Functional and morphological affinities of the subadult hand (OH 7) from Olduvai Gorge. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 51: 311–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Susman, R.L. and Stern, J.T., Jr. (1979) Telemetered electromyography of flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis in Pan troglodytes and implications for interpretation of the O.H. 7 hand. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 50: 565–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tuttle, R.H. (1977) Naturalistic positional behavior of apes and models of hominid evolution, 1929–1976. In “Progress in Ape Research” ( G.H. Bourne, ed.), pp. 277–296. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  71. Tuttle, R.H., Cartright, G.W. and Buxhoeveden, D.P. (1979) Anthropology on the move: progress in experimental studies of nonhuman primate positional behavior. Yearb. Phys. Anthrop. 22: 187–214.Google Scholar
  72. Vrba, E.S. (1979) A new study of the scapula of Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 51: 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Walker, A.C. and Pickford, M. (1983) New postcranial fossils of Proconsul africanus and Proconsul nyanzae. In “New Interpretations of Ape and Human Ancestry” (R.L. Ciochon and R.F. Corruccini, eds.). Plenum, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  74. Wescott, R.W. (1967) The exhibitionistic origin of human bipedal-ism. Man 2: 630.Google Scholar
  75. White, T.D. (1980) Additional fossil hominids from Laetoli, Tanzania: 1976–1979 specimens. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 53: 487–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wood Jones, F. (1918) “The Problem of Man’s Ancestry”. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London.Google Scholar
  77. Zihlman, A. and Brunker, L. (1979) Hominid bipedalism: then and now. Yearb. Phys. Anthrop. 22: 132–162.Google Scholar
  78. Zuckerman, S., Ashton, E.H., Flinn, R.M., Oxnard, C.E. and Spence, T.F. (1973) Some locomotor features of the pelvic girdle in primates. Symp. zooZ. Soc. Lond. 33: 71–165.Google Scholar
  79. Zwell, M. and Conroy, G. (1973) Multivariate analysis of the Dryopithecus africanus forelimb. Nature 244: 373–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stern, J.T., Jr. and Susman, R.L. (1983) The locomotor anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 60 (in press).Google Scholar
  81. Susman, R.L. and Stern, J.T., Jr. (1982) Functional morphology of Homo habilis. Science 217: 931–934.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. D. Rose
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of AnatomyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations