Around the turn of the century, W. C. Sullivan (1899) reported that over half of the 600 children born to 120 alcoholic women inmates in a Liverpool prison were stillborn or died in early infancy, a rate 2.5 times higher than for infants born to sober relatives of these women. Sullivan attributed this increase to alcoholism because the longer these alcoholic women remained in prison during their pregnancies, the lower the stillbirth rate. In arriving at this conclusion, Sullivan did not consider the fact the imprisoned women were not only prevented from drinking but also received more medical attention and better food than those not living in prison.
KeywordsPreterm Birth Alcohol Exposure Stillbirth Rate Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Placental Weight
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