• Ernest L. Abel


In keeping with its characterization as a pattern of defects, FAS must be the result of alcohol abuse during more than one day or one period of pregnancy. This means in producing FAS, alcohol exposure must occur repeatedly throughout pregnancy, that is, during critical periods of organogenesis, as well as during periods of maturation and functional organization. Partial FAS, ARMs, or ARNDs, on the other hand, may occur as a result of isolated episodes of alcohol abuse, that is, bingeing. The one common thread linking all of these effects—the anatomical pathology as well as the growth retardation—is a reduction in cell populations. Although many substances have the potential for reducing cell populations, there are relatively few ways these reductions can occur during development. One way is cell death. Another is decreased cellular proliferation.


Retinoic Acid Neural Crest Cell Alcohol Exposure Free Radical Formation Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernest L. Abel
    • 1
  1. 1.Wayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA

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