Endotoxin pp 635-640 | Cite as

Endotoxin-Induced Cytokines in Human Septicemia

  • I. de Vries
  • S. J. H. van Deventer
  • J. Debets
  • H. R. Buller
  • J. W. ten Cate
  • W. Pauw
  • L. W. Statius van Eps
  • A. Sturk
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 256)


The Gram-negative septic syndrome is characterized by hypotension, intravascular coagulation and multiple organ failure (1). A large body of clinical and experimental evidence indicates that lipopolysaccharides present in the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane -endotoxins- play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of septicemia (2). In fact, we have recently reported that endotoxemia (as detected by the Limulus assay) is a better predictor of septicemia than Gram-negative bacteremia (3). Interestingly, the majority of patients with Gram-negative bacteremia who did not develop septicemia as defined by clinical criteria had a negative endotoxin test, whereas patients with endotoxemia had a high probability of developing septicemia. Therefore, we concluded that Gram-negative bacteremia and endotoxemia should be considered separate clinical entities, the latter being associated with the Gram-negative septic syndrome (3, 4).


Septic Shock Febrile Patient Endotoxin Shock Active Endotoxin Plasma Bicarbonate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. de Vries
    • 1
  • S. J. H. van Deventer
    • 2
  • J. Debets
    • 3
  • H. R. Buller
    • 2
  • J. W. ten Cate
    • 2
  • W. Pauw
    • 4
  • L. W. Statius van Eps
    • 1
  • A. Sturk
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine Slotervaart Hospital AmsterdamUniversity of LimburgMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Hemostasis Thrombosis Academical Medical Center AmsterdamUniversity of LimburgMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Biomedical CenterUniversity of LimburgMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Bacteriology Slotervaart Hospital AmsterdamUniversity of LimburgMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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