Advertisement

The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method

  • Bruce Archambeault
  • Omar M. Ramahi
  • Colin Brench

Abstract

The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method provides a direct integration of Maxwell’s time-dependent equations. During the past decade, the FDTD method has gained prominence amongst numerical techniques used in electromagnetic analysis. Its primary appeal is its remarkable simplicity. Furthermore, since the FDTD is a volume-based method, it is exceptionally effective in modeling complex structures and media. However, the distinct feature of the FDTD method, in comparison to the Method of Moments (MoM) and the Finite Elements Method (FEM) (see Chapters 4 and 5) is that it is a time-domain technique. This implies that one single simulation results in a solution that gives the response of the system to a wide range of frequencies. The time-domain solution, represented as a temporal waveform, can then be decomposed into its spectral components using Fourier Transform techniques. This advantage makes the FDTD especially wellsuited for most EMI/EMC problems in which a wide frequency range is intrinsic to the simulation.

Keywords

Field Component Transverse Electric Perfectly Match Layer Absorb Boundary Condition FDTD Method 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S.D. Conte and C. de Boor, Elementary Numerical Analysis: An Algorithmic Approach, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.E. Atkinson, An Introduction to Numerical Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978.MATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K.S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 14, pp. 302–307, 1966.MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference TimeDomain Method, Artech House: Boston, 1995.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K.S. Kunz and R.J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.L. Higdon, “Radiation Boundary Conditions for Elastic Wave Propagation,” SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis, vol. 27, pp. 831–870, 1990.MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    O.M. Ramahi, “Complementary operators: A method to annihilate artificial reflections arising from the truncation of the computational domain in the solution of partial differential equations,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 43, pp. 697–704, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O.M. Ramahi, “Complementary boundary operators for wave propagation problems,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 133, pp. 113–128, 1997.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 114, pp. 185–200, 1994.MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J-P. Berenger, “Three-dimensional perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 127, pp. 363–379, 1996.MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.L. Higdon, “Absorbing boundary conditions for acoustic and elastic waves in stratified media,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 101, pp. 386–418, 1992.MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.L. Higdon, “Radiation Boundary Conditions for Dispersive Waves,” SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis, vol. 31, pp. 64–100, 1994.MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M.J. Barth and R.R. McLeod and R.W. Ziolkowski, “A near and far-field projection algorithm for Finite-Difference Time-Domain codes,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 6, pp. 5–18, 1992.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    I.J. Craddock and C.J. Railton, “Application of the FDTD method and a full time-domain near-field transform to the problem of radiation from a PCB,” Electronic Letters, vol. 29, pp. 2017–2018, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.J. Luebbers, K.S. Kunz, M. Schneider, and F. Hunsberger, “A finitedifference time-domain near zone to far zone transformation,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 39, pp. 429–433, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.L. Britt, “Solution of electromagnetic scattering problems using time domain techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 37, pp. 1181–1192, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1962.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce Archambeault
    • 1
  • Omar M. Ramahi
    • 2
  • Colin Brench
    • 2
  1. 1.IBM CorporationUSA
  2. 2.Digital Equipment CorporationUSA

Personalised recommendations