Excluding water trapped in the polar icecaps, groundwater accounts for about 97% of all non-marine water on Earth. It has a far greater significance in terms of drainage and water supply than surface water, but it risks being overlooked even by the engineer because it is easy neither to see nor to quantify. In England and Wales slightly more than one-third of water for public supply derives from groundwater; in Scotland it is only 3%. In arid climates such as large areas of Africa and the Middle East where there are no perennial water courses, the role of groundwater attains a greater significance because it is the only reliable source available to man.
KeywordsHydraulic Conductivity Groundwater Flow Unconfined Aquifer Groundwater Inflow Diaphragm Wall
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