The first documented reference to any part of the nervous system is found in the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, originally compiled in Egypt ca. 3000 BC and known from a copy made ca. 1600 Bc. Case Six of this surgical collection is an account of a head injury so severe as to expose the brain after penetrating the skull and meninges. The surgeon is directed to palpate the wound and feel the “corrugations which form in molden copper [the convolutions], (and) something therein throbbing (and) fluttering under thy fingers” (Breasted, 1930, vol. I, p. 166). Because the hieroglyphics for “brain” (Fig. 3.1) are usually followed by “in the skull,” Breasted suggests “marrow of the skull” as the earliest designation of the brain.
KeywordsCerebrospinal Fluid Tight Junction Pineal Gland Choroid Plexus Cerebral Ventricle
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