Advertisement

Victim Precipitated Criminal Homicide

  • Marvin E. Wolfgang
Chapter

Abstract

In many crimes, especially in criminal homicide, the victim is often a major contributor to the criminal act. Except in cases in which the victim is an innocent bystander and is killed in lieu of an intended victim, or in cases in which a pure accident is involved, the victim may be one of the major precipitating causes of his own demise.

Keywords

Negro Male Proportional Difference Male Victim Police File Female Offender 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. i.
    VON HENTIG, HANS, THE CRIMINAL AND His VICTIM, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1948, pp. 383–385. Google Scholar
  2. ii.
    TARDE, GABRIEL, PENAL PHILOSOPHY, Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1912, p. 466. Google Scholar
  3. iii.
    DE QUINCEY, T On Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts,THE ARTS OF CHEATING, SWINDLING, AND MURDER, EDWARD BULWER-LYTTON AND DOUGLAS JERROLD, AND THOMAS DEQUINCEY New York: The Arnold Co., 1925, p. 153. Google Scholar
  4. iv.
    GAROFALO, BARON RAFFAELE, CRIMINOLOGY Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1914, p. 373. Google Scholar
  5. v.
    For an excellent discussion of the rule of provocation, from which these four requirements are taken, see: ROLLIN M. PERKINS, The Law of Homicide,JOUR. Of CRIM. LAW AND CRIMINOL., (March-April, 1946), 36: 412–427; AND HERBERT WECHSLER AND JEROME MICHAEL, A RATIONALE OF THE LAW OF HOMOCIDE, pp. 1280–1282. A general review of the rule of provocation, both in this country and abroad, may be found in THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, 1949–1952 Report,Appendix II, pp. 453–458. Google Scholar
  6. vi.
    Vi Ibid., p. 425. The term “cause” is here used in a legal and not a psychological sense.Google Scholar
  7. vii.
    In order to facilitate reading of the following sections, the victim-precipitated cases are referred to simply as VP cases or VP homicides. Those homicides in which the victim was not a direct precipitator are referred to as non-VP cases.Google Scholar
  8. viii.
    Of 588 victims, 228, or 39 percent, were stabbed; 194,or 33 percent, were shot; 128, or 22 percent were beaten; and 38,or 6 percent, were killed by other methods.Google Scholar
  9. ix.
    ix Only 550 victim-offender relationships are identified since 38 of the 588 criminal homicides are classified as unsolved, or those in which the perpetrator is unknown.Google Scholar
  10. x.
    The diagonal line represents “killed by”. Thus, Negro male/Negro male means a Negro male killed by a Negro male; the victim precedes the offender.Google Scholar
  11. xi.
    PORTERFIELD, AUSTIN L. AND TALBERT, ROBERT FL, MID-CENTURY CRIME IN OUR CULTURE PERSONALITY AND CRIME IN THE CULTURAL PATTERNS OF AMERICAN STATES, Fort Worth: Leo Potishman Foundation, 1954, pp. 47–48. Google Scholar
  12. xii.
    VON HENTIG, Op. cit., p. 383. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marvin E. Wolfgang

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations