A Minimum Requirement for Police Corruption

  • Carl B. Klockars
  • Maria R. Haberfeld
  • Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovich
  • Aaron Uydess
Chapter

Abstract

Corruption is extremely difficult to study in a direct, quantitative, empirical manner. Because most corruption incidents are never reported or recorded, official data on corruption are better regarded as measures of police agency anti-corruption activity than as measures of the actual level of corruption. Moreover, police officers are unlikely to be willing to candidly report their own or other officers’ corrupt activities, even with assurances of confidentiality by researchers.

Keywords

Income Cocaine Assure Smoke Boulder 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl B. Klockars
    • 1
  • Maria R. Haberfeld
    • 2
  • Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovich
    • 3
  • Aaron Uydess
    • 1
  1. 1.University of DelawareUSA
  2. 2.John Jay College of Criminal JusticeUSA
  3. 3.Harvard UniversityUSA

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