Advertisement

Introduction to Communication Problems in Autism

  • Eric Schopler
  • Gary B. Mesibov
Part of the Current Issues in Autism book series (CIAM)

Abstract

Although autism is frequently described as a low-incidence disorder (Rutter & Schopler, 1978), the syndrome has attracted a growing cadre of researchers, clinicians, and teachers. This attraction can be attributed to autism’s devastating effect on families, the unusual and puzzling behaviors it produces, and its overlap with most other childhood disorders because it involves multiple problems with language, social relationships, emotional adjustment, conceptualization, hyperactivity, and learning. This growing interest has resulted in a better understanding and treatment of autistic people than has ever been available in the past. However, the proliferation of articles, books, treatment programs, and media coverage has also brought increased confusion and misconceptions. There is the problem of staying up to date with the increasing amount of information from both the professional and popular literature along with the difficulty in distinguishing sound research from that which is careless or pointless. A related concern is how to distinguish new treatment or educational methods that are effective from primarily self-promoting exaggerations that offer only false hope.

Keywords

Sign Language Specific Language Impairment Communication Training Developmental Disa Normal Language 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bartak, L., & Rutter, M. (1974). The use of personal pronouns by autistic children. Journal of Autism and Child Schizophrenia, 4, 217–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bettelheim, B. (1967). The empty fortress: Infantile autism and the birth of the self New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  3. Cunningham, M. A., & Dixon, C. A. (1961). A study of the language of an autistic child. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2, 193–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. DeMyer, M. K., Barton, S., DeMeyer, W. E., Norton, J. A., Allen, J., & Steel, R. (1973). Prognosis in autism: A follow-up study. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 3, 199–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Despert, J. L. (1951). Some considerations relating to the genesis of autistic behavior in children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 21, 335–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eisenberg, L., & Kanner, L. (1956). Early infantile autism 1943–55. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 26, 556–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hermelin, B., & O’Connor, N. (1970). Psychological experiments with autistic children. London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  8. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  9. Kanner, L. (1946). Irrelevant and metaphorical language in early infantile autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 103, 242–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kanner, L. (1971). Follow-up study of eleven autistic children originally reported in 1943. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 119–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lane, H. (1976). The Wild Boy of Aveyron. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Lockyer, L., & Rutter, M. (1970). A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis. IV. Patterns of cognitive ability. British Journal of Sociology and Clinical Psychology, 9, 152–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lovaas, I. (1977). The autistic child: Language development through behavior modification. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  14. Rimland, B. (1964). Infantile Autism. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  15. Rutter, M. (1983). Cognitive deficits in the pathogenesis of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 513–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rutter, M., & Schopler, E. (Eds.). (1978). Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  17. Rutter, M., Greenfeld, D., and Lockyer, L. (1967). A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis. II. Social and Behavioural Outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1183–1199.Google Scholar
  18. Schopler, E. (1971). Parents of psychotic children as scapegoats. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 4, 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schopler, E. (1983). New developments in the definition and diagnosis of autism. In B. B. Lahey and A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in Clinical Psychology, Vol. 6 (pp. 93–127 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  20. Schopler, E., & Reichler, R. J. (1971). Parents as cotherapists in the treatment of psychotic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 87–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tinbergen, N., & Tinbergen, E. A. (1983). Autistic children: New hope for a cure. Winchester, MA: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  22. Wing, L. (Ed.) (1976). Early childhood autism: Clinical, educational and social aspects ( 2nd ed. ). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  23. Wolff, S., & Chess, S. (1965). An analysis of the language of fourteen schizophrenic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 6, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Schopler
    • 1
  • Gary B. Mesibov
    • 1
  1. 1.Division TEACCHUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations