The Mating Tactics and Spacing Patterns of Solitary Carnivores

  • Mikael Sandell


A majority of the carnivore species are primarily solitary, having very little contact with conspecifics (Gittleman, this volume). These solitary species have received less attention than the group-living species, which have attracted much interest (see reviews in Macdonald and Moehlman 1982; Macdonald 1983; Bekoff et al. 1984).


Home Range Home Range Size Giant Panda Mating Season Black Bear 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ables, E. D. 1969. Home-range studies of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). J. Mamm. 50:108–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amstrup, S. C., and Beecham, J. 1976. Activity patterns of radio-collared black bears in Idaho. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 40:340–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, T. N. 1974. Social organization in a bobcat population. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 38:435–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey, T. N., Bangs, E. E., Portner, M. F., Malloy, J. C, and McAvinchey, R. J. 1986. An apparent overexploited lynx population on the Kenai peninsula, Alaska. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 50:279–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ballard, W. B., Miller, S. D., and Spraker, T. H. 1982. Home range, daily movements, and reproductive biology of brown bear in southcentral Alaksa. Canadian Field-Nat. 96:1–5.Google Scholar
  6. Bekoff, M., Daniels, T. J., and Gittleman, J. L. 1984. Life history patterns and the comparative social ecology of carnivores. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15:191–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bekoff, M., and Wells, M. C. 1982. Behavioral ecology of coyotes: Social organization, rearing patterns, space use, and resource defence. Z. Tierpsychol. 60:281–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berg, W. E. 1981. Ecology of bobcats in northern Minnesota. Natl. Wildl. Fedn. Sci. Tech. Ser. 6:55–61.Google Scholar
  9. Bowen, D. W. 1982. Home range and spatial organization of coyotes in Jasper National Park, Alberta. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 46:201–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradbury, J., Gibson, R., and Tsai, I. M. 1986. Hotspots and the dispersion of leks. Anim. Behav. 34:1694–1709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caro, T. M., and Collins, D. A. 1987. Male cheetah social organization and territoriality. Ethology 74:52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charles-Dominique, P. 1978. Ecologie et vie sociale de Nandinia binotata (Carnivores, Viverrides): Comparaison avec les prosimiens sympatriques du Garbon. La Terre et la Vie 32:477–528.Google Scholar
  13. Clutton-Brock, T. H., and Harvey, P. H. 1978. Mammals, resources and reproductive strategies. Nature 273:191–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dietz, J. M. 1984. Ecology and social organization of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 392:1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunstone, N., and Birks, J. D. S. 1985. The comparative ecology of coastal, riverine and lacustrine mink Mustela vison in Britain. Z. Angewandte Zool. 72:60–70.Google Scholar
  16. Duplaix, N. 1980. Observations on the ecology and behavior of the giant river otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, in Suriname. Rev. Ecol. 34:495–620.Google Scholar
  17. Eisenberg, J. F. 1966. The social organization of mammals. Handb. Zool., Band 8, Lieferung 39; 10(7): 1–92.Google Scholar
  18. Eisenberg, J. F. 1981. The Mammalian Radiations. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  19. Emlen, S. T., and Oring, L. W. 1977. Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197:215–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Erlinge, S. 1977. Spacing strategy in stoat, Mustela erminea. Oikos 28:32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Erlinge, S. 1983. Demography and dynamics of a stoat (Mustela erminea) population in a diverse community of vertebrates. J. Anim. Ecol. 52:705–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Erlinge, S., and Sandell, M. 1986. Seasonal changes in the social organization of male stoats, Mustela erminea: An effect of shifts between two decisive resources. Oikos 47:57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferguson, J. W. H., Nel, J. A. J., and de Wet, M. J. 1983. Social organization and movement patterns of black-backed jackals, Canis mesomelas, in South Africa. J. Zool. 199:487–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frame, L. H., Malcolm, J. R., Frame, G. W., and van Lawick, H. 1979. Social organization of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) on the Serengeti Plains, Tanzania, 1967–1978. Z. Tierpsychol. 50:225–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fritzell, E. K. 1978a. Aspects of raccoon (Procyon lotor) social organization. Canadian J. Zool. 56:260–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fritzell, E. K. 1978b. Habitat use by prairie raccoons during the waterfowl breeding season. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 42:118–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garshelis, D. L., Johnson, A. M., and Garshelis, J. A. 1984. Social organization of sea otters in Prince William sound, Alaska. Canadian J. Zool. 62:2648–2658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Garshelis, D. L., and Pelton, M. R. 1981. Movements of black bears in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 45:912–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gerell, R. 1970. Home ranges and movements of the mink Mustela vision Schreber in southern Sweden. Oikos 21:160–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gittleman, J. L. 1984. The behavioural ecology of carnivores. Ph.D. dissert., Univ. Sussex, U.K.Google Scholar
  31. Gittleman, J. L., and Harvey, P. H. 1982. Carnivore home-range size, metabolic needs and ecology. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 10:57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Green, J., Green, R., and Jefferies, D. J. 1984. A radio-tracking survey of otters Lutra lutra on a Perthshire river system. Lutra 27:85–145.Google Scholar
  33. Haller, H., and Breitenmoser, U. 1986. Zur Raumorganisation der in den Schweizer Alpen wiederangesiedelten Population des Luchses (Lynx lynx). Z. Säugetierk. 51:289–311.Google Scholar
  34. Harrington, F. H., and Mech, L. D. 1982. Patterns of homesite attendance in two Minnesota wolf packs. In: F. H. Harrington & P. C. Paquet, eds. Wolves of the World: Perspectives of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, pp. 81–109. Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes.Google Scholar
  35. Harrington, F. H., Mech, L. D., and Fritts, S. H. 1983. Pack size and wolf pup survival: Their relationship under varying ecological conditions. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 13:19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harrington, F. H., Paquet, P. C, Ryon, J., and Fentress, J. C. 1982. Monogamy in wolves: A review of the evidence. In: F. H. Harrington & P. C. Paquet, eds. Wolves of the World: Perspectives of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, pp. 209–222. Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes.Google Scholar
  37. Harris, S. 1982. Activity patterns and habitat utilization of badgers (Meles meles) in suburban Bristol: A radio tracking study. Symp. Zool. Soc. London 49:301–323.Google Scholar
  38. Hemker, T. P., Lindzey, F. G., and Ackerman, B. B. 1984. Population characteristics and movement patterns of cougars in southern Utah. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 48:1275–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hersteinsson, P., and Macdonald, D.W. 1982. Some comparisons between red and arctic foxes, Vulpes vulpes and Alopex lagopus, as revealed by radiotracking. Symp. Zool. Soc. London 49:259–289.Google Scholar
  40. Hornocker, M. G., and Hash, H. S. 1981. Ecology of the wolverine in northwestern Montana. Canadian J. Zool. 59:1286–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ikeda, H. 1986. Old dogs, new treks. Nat. Hist. 1986(8):38–44.Google Scholar
  42. Johnsingh, A. J. T. 1982. Reproductive and social behaviour of the dhole, Cuon alpinus (Canidae). J. Zool. 198:443–463.Google Scholar
  43. Kitchings, J. T., and Story, J. D. 1984. Movements and dispersal of bobcats in east Tennessee. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 48:957–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kleiman, D. G., and Malcolm, J. R. 1981. The evolution of male parental investment in mammals. In: D. J. Gubernick & P. H. Klopfer, eds. Parental Care in Mammals, pp. 347–387. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kruuk, H. 1972. The Spotted Hyena: A Study of Predation and Social Behaviour. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kruuk, H. 1978a. Foraging and spatial organization of the European badger, Meles meles L. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 4:75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kruuk, H. 1978b. Spatial organization and territorial behaviour of the European badger, Meles meles. J. Zool. 184:1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lamprecht, J. 1979. Field observations on the behaviour and social system of the bateared fox (Otocyon megalotis Desmarest). Z. Tierpsychol. 49:260–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Leyhausen, P. 1965. The communal organization of solitary mammals. Symp. Zool. Soc. London 14:249–263.Google Scholar
  50. Liberg, O., and Sandell, M. 1988. Spatial organization and reproductive tactics in the domestic cat and other felids. In: P. P. G. Bateson & D. C. Turner, eds. The Domestic Cat: The Biology of Its Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  51. Lindzey, F. G. 1978. Movement patterns of badgers in northwestern Utah. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 42:418–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lindzey, F. G., and Meslow, E. C. 1977. Home range and habitat use by black bears in southwestern Washington. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 41:413–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Linn, I. J., and Birks, J. D. S. 1981. Observations on the home ranges of feral American mink (Mustela vison) in Devon, England, as revealed by radio-tracking. In: J. A. Chapman & D. Pursley, eds. Proceedings of the Worldwide Furbearer Conference, pp. 1088–1102. Frostburg: Univ. Maryland Press.Google Scholar
  54. Litvaitis, J. A., Sherburne, J. A., and Bissonette, J. A. 1986. Bobcat habitat use and home range size in relation to prey density. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 50:110–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Loughlin, T. R. 1980. Home range and territoriality of sea otters near Monterey, California. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 44:576–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McCord, C. M. and Cardoza, J. E. 1982. Bobcat and lynx. In: J. A. Chapman & G. A. Feldhamer, eds. Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Economics, pp. 728–766. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  57. Macdonald, D. W. 1979. Helpers in fox society. Nature 282:69–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Macdonald, D. W. 1983. The ecology of carnivore social behaviour. Nature 301:379–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Macdonald, D. W., and Moehlman, P. D. 1982. Cooperation, altruism, and restraint in the reproduction of carnivores. In: P. P. G. Bateson & P. H. Klopfer, eds. Perspectives in Ethology, 5:433–467. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  60. Malcolm, J. R. 1986. Socio-ecology of bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis). J. Zool. 208:457–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Malcolm, J. R., and Marten, K. 1982. Natural selection and the communal rearing of pups in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 10:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mech, L. D. 1980. Age, sex, reproduction, and spatial organization of lynxes colonizing northeastern Minnesota. J. Mamm. 61:261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Messick, J. P., and Hornocker, M. G. 1981. Ecology of the badger in southwestern Idaho. Wildl. Monogr. 76:1–51.Google Scholar
  64. Messier, F., and Barrette, C. 1982. The social system of the coyote (Cants latrans) in a forested habitat. Canadian J. Zool. 60:1743–1753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Miller, S. D., and Speak, D. W. 1981. Progress report: Demography and home range of the bobcat in south Alabama. Natl. Wildl. Fedn. Sci. Tech. Ser. 6:123–124.Google Scholar
  66. Mills, M. G. L. 1982. The mating system of the brown hyaena, Hyaena brunnea, in the southern Kalahari. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 10:131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mills, M. G. L. 1985. Related spotted hyaenas forage together but do not cooperate in rearing young. Nature 316:61–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Moehlman, P. D. 1979. Jackal helpers and pup survival. Nature 277:382–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moehlman, P. D. 1986. Ecology of cooperation in canids. In: D. I. Rubenstein & R. W. Wrangham, eds. Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution, pp. 64–86. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  70. Mohr, C. O., and Stumpf, W. A. 1966. Comparison of methods for calculating areas on animal activity. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 30:293–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Owens, D. D., and Owens, M. J. 1979. Communal denning and clan associations in brown hyenas of the central Kalahari desert. African J. Ecol. 17:35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Owens, D. D., and Owens, M. J. 1984. Helping behaviour in brown hyenas. Nature 308:843–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pettifer, H. L. 1981. Aspects on the ecology of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) on the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve. In: J. A. Chapman & D. Pursley, eds. Proceedings of the Worldwide Furbearer Conf., pp. 1121–1142. Frostburg: Univ. Maryland Press.Google Scholar
  74. Ribic, C. A. 1982. Autumn movement and home range of sea otters in California. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 46:795–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rood, J. P. 1986. Ecology and social evolution in the mongooses. In: D. I. Rubenstein & R. W. Wrangham, eds. Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution, pp. 131–152. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  76. Russell, J. K. 1981. Exclusion of adult male coatis from social groups: Protection from predation. J. Mamm. 62:206–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Russell, J. K. 1983. Altruism in coati bands: Nepotism or reciprocity? In: S. K. Wasser, ed. Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates, pp. 263–290. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  78. Sandell M. 1986. Movement patterns of male stoats, Mustela erminea, during the mating season: Differences in relation to social status. Oikos 47:63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sargeant, A. B. 1972. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 36:225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  81. Schaller, G. B., Jinchu, H., Wenshi, P., and Jing, Z. 1985. The Giant Pandas of Wolong. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  82. Seidensticker, J. C, Hornocker, M. G., Wiles, W. V., and Messick, J. P. 1973. Mountain lion social organization in the Idaho Primitive Area. Wildl. Monogr. 35:1–60.Google Scholar
  83. Servheen, C. 1983. Grizzly bear food habits, movements, and habitat selection in the Mission Mountains, Montana. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 47:1026–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sitton, L. W., and Wallen, S. 1976. California Mountain Lion Study. Sacramento: Dept. of Fish and Game, California.Google Scholar
  85. Skirnisson, K. 1986. Untersuchungen zum Raum-Zeit-System freilebender Steinmarder (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777). Beiträge zur Wildbiologie 6:1–200.Google Scholar
  86. Steventon, J. D., and Major, J. T. 1982. Marten use of habitat in a commercially clearcut forest. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 46:175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Storm, G. L. 1972. Daytime retreats and movements of skunks on farmlands in Illinois. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 36:31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sunquist, M. E. 1981. The social organization of tigers (Panthera tigris) in Royal Chitawan National Park, Nepal. Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 336:1–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Taylor, M. E., and Abrey, N. 1982. Marten, Martes americana, movements and habitat use in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Canadian Field-Nat. 96:439–447.Google Scholar
  90. Toweill, D. E., and Teer, J. G. 1981. Home range and den habits of Texas ringtails (Bassariscus astutus flavus). In: J. A. Chapman & D. Pursley, eds. Proceedings of the Worldwide Furbearer Conference, pp. 1103–1120. Frostburg: Univ. Maryland Press.Google Scholar
  91. Trapp, G. R. 1978. Comparative behavioral ecology of the ringtail and gray fox in southwestern Utah. Carnivore 1(2):3–32.Google Scholar
  92. Van Orsdol, K. G., Hanby, J. P., and Bygott, J. D. 1985. Ecological correlates of lion social organization (Panthera leo). J. Zool. (Lond.) 206:97–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. von Schantz, T. 1981. Evolution of group living, and the importance of food and social organization in population regulation: A study on the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Ph.D. dissert., Univ. Lund, Sweden.Google Scholar
  94. Ward, R. M. P., and Krebs, C. J. 1985. Behavioural responses of lynx to declining snowshoe hare abundance. Canadian J. Zool. 63:2817–2824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Waser, P. M. 1980. Small nocturnal carnivores: Ecological studies in the Serengeti. African J. Ecol. 18:167–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Waser, P. M., and Waser, M. S. 1985. Ichneumia albicauda and the evolution of viverrid gregariousness. Z. Tierpsychol. 68:137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Whitman, J. S., Ballard, W. B., and Gardner, C. L. 1986. Home range and habitat use by wolverines in southcentral Alaska. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 50:460–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wittenberger, J. F. 1979. The evolution of mating systems in birds and mammals. In: P. Marier & J. G. Vandenbergh, eds. Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, 3:271–349. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  99. Wittenberger, J. F. 1981. Animal Social Behavior. Boston: Duxbury Press.Google Scholar
  100. Wynne, K. M., and Sherburne, J. A. 1984. Summer home range use by adult marten in northwestern Maine. Canadian J. Zool. 62:941–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Young, B. F., and Ruff, R. L. 1982. Population dynamics and movements of black bears in east central Alberta. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 46:845–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zezulak, D. S., and Schwab, R. G. 1981. A comparison of density, home range and habitat utilization of bobcat populations at Lava Beds and Joshua Tree National Monuments, California. Natl. Wildl. Fedn. Sci. Tech. Ser. 6:74–79.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mikael Sandell

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations