Behavioral Development of Terrestrial Carnivores

  • Marc Bekoff


The importance of fully understanding behavioral development cannot be emphasized too strongly. Without detailed knowledge of how the behavior of individuals unfolds throughout life, and not only during infancy, we can only guess at the supposed adaptive significance of various ontogenetic patterns and how they may be related to (1) the immediate situation in which a young animal finds itself and (2) its later reproductive activities and fitness (Tinbergen 1951, 1963; Bekoff 1977d, 1981a, 1981b; Gould 1977; Galef 1981; Wiley 1981; Mayr 1983; Calow 1984; Lee 1984; Bekoff and Byers 1985; Gray 1985a, 1985b; Maynard Smith et al. 1985; Brooks and Wiley 1986; Jamieson 1986; Buss 1987; Clark and Ehlinger 1987; Łomnicki 1988). Therefore, studies of adult behavior conducted in the absence of developmental data may make unwarranted assumptions.


Polar Bear Social Play Behavioral Development Dominance Relationship Golden Jackal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Afik, D., and Alkon, P. U. 1983. Movements of a radio-collared wolf (Cams lupus pallipes) in the Negev Highlands, Israel. Israel J. Zool. 32:138–146.Google Scholar
  2. Allison, L. 1971. Activity and behaviour of red foxes in central Alaska. M.Sc. thesis, Univ. Toronto. 92 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Alt, G. L., and Beecham, J. J. 1984. Reintroduction of orphaned black bear cubs into the wild. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 12:169–174.Google Scholar
  4. Alt, G. L., and Gruttadauria, J. M. 1984. Reuse of black bear dens in northeastern Pennsylvania. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 48:236–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altmann, S. A. 1986. [Book review, Levins and Lewontin 1985]. Ethology 71:85–87.Google Scholar
  6. Apfelbach, R. 1986. Imprinting on prey odours in ferrets (Mustela putorius f. furo) and its neural correlates. Bebav. Proc. 12:363–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Apfelbach, R., and Weiler, E. 1985a. Is there a neural basis for olfactory imprinting in ferrets? Naturwissenschaften 72:106–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Apfelbach, R., and Weiler, E. 1985b. Olfactory deprivation enhances normal spine loss in the olfactory bulbs of developing ferrets. Neurosci. Letters 62:169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arieli, R., Heth, G., Nevo, E., Zamir, Y., and Neutra, O. 1986. Adaptive heart and breathing frequencies in 4 ecologically differentiating chromosomal species of mole rats in Israel. Experientia 42:131–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Armitage, K. B. 1986. Individual differences in the behavior of juvenile yellow-bellied marmots. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 18:419–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashmead, D. H., Clifton, R. K., and Reese, E. P. 1986. Development of auditory localization on dogs: Single source and precedence effect sounds. Devel. Psychobiol. 19:91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baerends-van Roon, J. M., and Baerends, G. P. 1979. The Morphogenesis of the Behaviour of the Domestic Cat. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  13. Bakeman, R., and Gottman, J. M. 1986. Observing Interaction: An Introduction to Sequential Analysis. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  14. Baker, C. M. 1980. Agonistic behaviour patterns of the slender mongoose, Herpestes sanguineus. South African J. Zool. 16:262–265.Google Scholar
  15. Barlow, G. B. 1977. Modal action patterns. In: T. A. Sebeok, ed. How Animals Communicate, pp. 98–134. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bartholomew, G. A. 1986. The role of natural history in contemporary biology. Bio-Science 36:324–329.Google Scholar
  17. Bateson, P. P. G. 1976. Specificity and the origins of behavior. Adv. Study Behav. 6:1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bekoff, A. 1988. The neural basis for the ontogeny of behavior in vertebrates. In: W. M. Cowan, ed. Handbook of Physiology: Volume on Developmental Neurobiology. Bethesda, Md.: American Physiological Society. In press.Google Scholar
  19. Bekoff, M. 1972a. An ethological study of the development of social interaction in the genus Canis: A dyadic analysis. Ph.D. dissert., Washington Univ., St. Louis. 164 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Bekoff, M. 1972b. The development of social interaction, play, and metacommunication in mammals: An ethological perspective. Quart. Rev. Biol. 47:412–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bekoff, M. 1974. Social play and play-soliciting by infant canids. Amer. Zool. 14:323–340.Google Scholar
  22. Bekoff, M. 1975a. Animal play and behavioral diversity. Amer. Nat. 109:601–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bekoff, M. 1975b. The communication of play intention: Are play signals functional? Semiotica 15:231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bekoff, M. 1975c. Social behavior and ecology of the African Canidae: A review. In: M. W. Fox, ed. The Wild Canids: Their Systematics, Behavioral Ecology and Evolution, pp. 120–142. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  25. Bekoff, M. 1976. Animal play: Problems and perspectives. Persp. Ethol. 2:165–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bekoff, M. 1977a. The coyote, Canis latrans Say. Mamm. Species 79:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bekoff, M. 1977b. Mammalian dispersal and the ontogeny of individual behavioral phenotypes. Amer. Nat. 111:715–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bekoff, M. 1977c. Quantitative studies of three areas of classical ethology: Social dominance, behavioral taxonomy, and behavioral variability. In: B. A. Hazlett, ed. Quantitative Methods in the Study of Animal Behavior, pp. 1–46. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Bekoff, M. 1977d. Socialization in mammals with an emphasis on nonprimates. In: S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff & F. E. Poirier, eds. Primate Bio-Social Development: Biological, Social, and Ecological Determinants, pp. 603–636. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  30. Bekoff, M. 1978a. Behavioral development in coyotes and eastern coyotes. In: M. Bekoff, ed. Coyotes: Biology, Behavior, and Management, pp. 97–126. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. Bekoff, M. 1978b. A field study of the development of behavior in Adelie penguins: Univariate and numerical taxonomic approaches. In: G. Burghardt & M. Bekoff, eds. The Development of Behavior: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects, pp. 177–202. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  32. Bekoff, M. 1978c. Social play: Structure, function, and the evolution of a cooperative social behavior. In: G. Burghardt & M. Bekoff, eds. The Development of Behavior: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects, pp. 367–383. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  33. Bekoff, M. 1979. Behavioral acts: Description, classification, ethogram analysis, and measurement. In: R. B. Cairns, ed. The Analysis of Social Interactions: Methods, Issues, and Illustrations, pp. 67–80. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  34. Bekoff, M. 1981a. Development of agonistic behavior: Ethological and ecological perspectives. In: P. F. Brain & D. Benton, eds. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Aggression Research, pp. 161–178. New York: Elsevier/North Holland.Google Scholar
  35. Bekoff, M. 1981b. Mammalian sibling interactions: Genes, facilitative environments, and the coefficient of familiarity. In: D. J. Gubernick & P. H. Klopfer, eds. Parental Care in Mammals, pp. 307–346. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bekoff, M. 1982. Functional aspects of play as revealed by structural components and social interaction patterns. Behav. Brain Sci. 5:156–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bekoff, M. 1984. Social play behavior. BioScience 34:228–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bekoff, M. 1987. Group living, natal philopatry, and Lindström’s lottery: It’s all in the family. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2:115–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bekoff, M. 1988. Motor training and physical fitness: Possible Short-and long-term influences on the development of individual differences in behavior. Dev. Psychobiol. 21:601–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bekoff, M., and Byers, J. A. 1981. A critical reanalysis of the ontogeny and phylogeny of mammalian social play and locomotor play: An ethological hornet’s nest. In: K. Immelmann, G. W. Barlow, L. Petrinovich & M. Main, eds. Behavioral Development: The Bielefeld Interdisciplinary Conference, pp. 296–337. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  41. Bekoff, M., and Byers, J. A. 1985. The development of behavior from evolutionary and ecological perspectives in mammals and birds. Evol. Biol. 19:215–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bekoff, M. and Conner, D. 1987. Relationships between age at eye-opening and age at independence in canids. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  43. Bekoff, M., Daniels, T. J., and Gittleman, J. L. 1984. Life history patterns and the comparative social ecology of carnivores. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15:191–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Bekoff, M., Diamond, J., and Mitton, J. B. 1981b. Life history patterns and sociality in canids: Body size, reproduction, and behavior. Oecologia 50:386–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Bekoff, M., Hill, H. L., and Mitton, J. B. 1975. Behavioral taxonomy in canids in discriminant function analysis. Science 190:1223–1225.Google Scholar
  46. Bekoff, M., and Mech, L. D. 1984. Simulation analyses of space use: Home range estimates, variability, and sample size. Behav. Res. Methods Instruments Computers 16:32–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Bekoff, M., Tyrrell, M., Lipetz, V. E., and Jamieson, R. 1981a. Fighting patterns in young coyotes: Initiation, escalation, and assessment. Aggressive Behav. 7:225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Bekoff, M., and Wells, M. C. 1980. The social ecology of coyotes. Sci. Amer. 242:130–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Bekoff, M., and Wells, M. C. 1982. Behavioral ecology of coyotes: Social organization, rearing patterns, space use, and resource defense. Z. Tierpsychol. 60:281–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bekoff, M., and Wells, M. C. 1986. Social ecology and behavior of coyotes. Adv. Study Behav. 16:251–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bennett, B. 1987. Measures of relatedness. Ethology 74:219–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Bennett, P. M., and Harvey, P. H. 1985. Brain size, development and metabolism in birds and mammals. J. Zool. 207:491–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Berger, J. 1979. Social ontogeny and behavioural diversity: Consequences for bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, inhabiting desert and mountain environments. J. Zool. 118:252–266.Google Scholar
  54. Bernstein, I. S., and Williams, L. E. 1983. Ontogenetic changes and the stability of rhesus monkey dominance relationships. Behav. Processes 8:379–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Bertram, B. C. R. 1973. Lion population regulation. East African Wildl. J. 11:215–225.Google Scholar
  56. Bertram, B. C. R. 1978. Pride of Lions. New York: Scribners.Google Scholar
  57. Biben, M. 1982a. Object play and social treatment of prey in bush dogs and crab-eating foxes. Behaviour 79:210–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Biben, M. 1982b. Ontogeny of social behaviour related to feeding in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and the bush dog (Speothos venaticus). J. Zool. 196:207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Biben, M. 1982c. Sex differences in the play of young ferrets. Biol. Behav. 7:303–308.Google Scholar
  60. Biben, M. 1983. Comparative ontogeny of social behaviour in three South American canids, the maned wolf, crab-eating fox and bush dog: Implications for sociality. Anim. Behav. 31:814–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Blaustein, A. R., Bekoff, M., and Daniels, T. J. 1987. Kin recognition in vertebrates (excluding primates): Empirical evidence; Mechanisms, functions and future research. In: D. J. C. Fletcher & C. D. Michener, eds. Kin Recognition in Animals, pp. 287–331; 333-357. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  62. Blomqvist, C. G., and Saltin, B. 1983. Cardiovascular adaptations to physical training. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 45:169–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Bookstaber, R., and Langsam, J. 1985. On the optimality of coarse behavior rules. J. Theor. Biol. 116:161–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Boyd, R., and Richerson, P. J. 1985. Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  65. Brady, C. A. 1979. Observations on the behavior and ecology of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). In: J. F. Eisenberg, ed. Vertebrate Ecology in the Northern Neotropics, pp. 161–171. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  66. Brady, C. A. 1981. The vocal repertoires of the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), crabeating fox (Cerdocyon thous), and maned wolf (Chrysocyon hrachyurus). Anim. Behav. 29:649–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Brooks, D. R., and Wiley, E. O. 1986. Evolution as Entropy: Toward a Unified Theory of Biology. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  68. Brown, A. J. L. 1977. Physiological correlates of enzyme polymorphism. Nature 269:803–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Brown, J. A., and Colgan, P. W. 1985. The ontogeny of social behaviour in four species of centrarchid fish. Behaviour 92:254–276.Google Scholar
  70. Brownlee, A. 1954. Play in domestic cattle in Britain: An analysis of its nature. British Vet. J. 110:46–68.Google Scholar
  71. Bunge, M. 1979. Causality and Modern Science. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  72. Burghardt, G. M. 1988. Precocity, play, and the ecotherm-endotherm transition: Profound reorganization or superficial adaptation? In: E. M. Blass, ed. Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, 9:107–148. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  73. Burrows, R. 1968. Wild Fox. New York: Taplinger.Google Scholar
  74. Buss, L. W. 1987. The Evolution of Individuality. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  75. Byers, J. A. 1983. Social interactions of juvenile collared peccaries, Tayassu tajacu (Mammalia: Artidactyla). J. Zool. 201:83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Byers, J. A., and Bekoff, M. 1986. What does “kin recognition” mean? Ethology 72:342–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Caley, M. T. 1972. The ontogeny of predatory behavior in captive arctic foxes. M.Sc. thesis, Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks.Google Scholar
  78. Calow, P. 1984. Economics of ontogeny—adaptational aspects. In: B. Shorrocks, ed. Evolutionary Ecology, pp. 81–104. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  79. Camenzind, F. J. 1978. Behavioral ecology of coyotes on the National Elk Rufuge, Jackson, Wyoming. In: M. Bekoff, ed. Coyotes: Biology, Behavior, and Management, pp. 267–294. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  80. Caro, T. M. 1979. Relations between kitten behaviour and adult predation. Z. Tierpsychol. 51:158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Caro, T. M. 1981. Predatory behaviour and social play in kittens. Behaviour 76:1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Caro, T. M. 1987. Indirect costs of play: Cheetah cubs reduce maternal hunting success. Anim. Behav. 35:295–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Caro, T. M., and Alawi, R. M. 1985. Comparative aspects of behavioural development in two species of free-living hyrax. Behaviour 95:87–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Caro, T. M., and Collins, D. A. 1987. Male cheetah social organization and territoriality. Ethology 74:52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Chapman, J., and Feldhamer, G., eds. 1982. Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Economics, and Management. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  86. Chase, I. D. 1982a. Behavioral sequences during dominance hierarchy formation in chickens. Science 216:439–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Chase, I. D. 1982b. Dynamics of hierarchy formation: The sequential development of dominance relationships. Behaviour 80:218–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Chase, I. D. 1986. Explanations of hierarchy structure. Anim. Behav. 34:1265–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Chesser, R. K., and Ryman, N. 1986. Inbreeding as a strategy in subdivided populations. Evolution 40:616–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. 1974. The ontogeny of communication in the stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides). Contrib. Primatology 2:1–174.Google Scholar
  91. Clark, A. B., and Ehlinger, T. J. 1987. Pattern and adaptation in individual behavioral differences. Perspect. Ethol. 7:1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Coghill, G. F. 1929. Anatomy and the Problem of Behavior. New York: Hafner.Google Scholar
  93. Cohen, J. 1963. On the nature of mathematical proofs. In: R. A. Baker, ed. Stress Analysis of a Strapless Evening Gown, pp. 84–90. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  94. Colgan, P. 1983. Comparative Social Recognition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  95. Cooper, J. 1942. An exploratory study on African lions. Comp. Psychol. Monogr. 17:1–48.Google Scholar
  96. Coppinger, R., Glendinning, J., Torop, E., Matthay, C, Sutherland, M., and Smith, C. 1987. Degree of behavioral neoteny differentiates canid polymorphs. Ethology 75:89–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Corning, P. A. 1983. The Synergism Hypothesis: A Theory of Progressive Evolution. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  98. Craighead, F. C, and Craighead, J. J. 1972. Grizzly bear prehibernation and denning activities as determined by radiotracking. Wildl. Monogr. 32:1–35.Google Scholar
  99. Craighead, J. J., and Mitchell, J. A. 1982. Grizzly bear. In: J. W. Chapman & G. A. Feldhamer, eds. Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Economics, pp. 515–556. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  100. Crawford, P. B., Crawford, S. A. H., and Crawford, R. J. M. 1983. Some observations on cape gray mongooses, Herpestes pulverulentus, in the Tsitsikamma National Parks. South African J. Wildl. res. 13:35–40.Google Scholar
  101. Daniels, T. J. 1987. The social ecology and behavior of free-ranging dogs. Ph.D. dissert., Univ. Colorado, Boulder. 303 pp.Google Scholar
  102. Danzmann, R. G., Ferguson, M. M., and Aliendorf, F. W. 1987. Heterozygosity and oxygen-consumption rate as predictors of growth and developmental rate in rainbow trout. Physiol. Zool. 60:211–220.Google Scholar
  103. Danzmann, R. G., Ferguson, M. M., and Allendorf, F. W. 1988. Heterozygosity and components of fitness in a strain of rainbow trout. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 33:285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Dean, F. C, Darling, L. M., and Lierhaus, A. G. 1986. Observations of intraspecific killing by brown bears, Ursus arctos. Canadian Field-Nat. 100:208–211.Google Scholar
  105. Diener, A. 1984. Hormonelle Einfluesse auf das geschlechtsspezifische Sozialspiel bei Iltisfrettchen (Mustela putorius f. furro). Z. Säugetierk. 49:242–246.Google Scholar
  106. Diener, A. 1985. Verhaltsanalysen zum Sozialspiel von Iltisfrettchen (Muestela putorious f. furo). Z. Tierpsychol. 67:179–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Dietz, J. M. 1984. Ecology and social organization of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. no. 392:1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Dietz, J. M. 1987. Grass roots of the maned wolf. Nat. Hist. 96:52–59.Google Scholar
  109. Dobson, F. S. 1982. Competition for mates and predominant juvenile male dispersal in mammals. Anim. Behav. 30:1183–1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Dobson, F. S., and Jones, W. T. 1985. Multiple causes of dispersal. Amer. Nat. 126:855–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Downhower, J. F., and Armitage, K. B. 1981. Dispersal of yearling yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Anim. Behav. 29:1064–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Dumont, J. P. C., and Robertson, R. M. 1986. Neuronal circuits: An evolutionary perspective. Science 233:849–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Eaton, R. C, and DiDomenico, R. 1985. Command and the neural causation of behavior: A theoretical analysis of the necessity and sufficiency paradigm. Brain Behav. Evol. 27:132–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Eco, U. 1986. Art and Beauty in the Middle Ages. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  115. Egoscue, H. J. 1979. The swift fox, Vulpes velox Say. Mamm. Species 122:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Eisenberg, J. F. 1981. The Mammalian Radiations: An Analysis of Trends in Evolution, Adaptation, and Behavior. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  117. Elliott, J. P., and McT. Cowan, I. 1978. Territoriality, density, and prey of the lion in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. Canadian J. Zool. 56:1726–1734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Eloff, F. C. 1973. Ecology and behavior of the Kalahari lion. In: R. L. Eaton, ed. The World’s Cats, 1:90–126. Winston, Ore.: World Wildlife Safari.Google Scholar
  119. Emlen, S. T., Emlen, J. M., and Levin, S. A. 1986. Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers-at-the-nest. Amer. Nat. 127:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Englund, J. 1980. Population dynamics of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes L., 1758). In: E. Zimen, ed. The Red Fox: Symposium on Behaviour and Ecology, pp. 107–121. The Hague: Junk.Google Scholar
  121. Erlinge, S. 1979. Adaptive significance of sexual dimorphism in weasels. Oikos 33:233–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Estes, J. A. 1980. Sea otter, Enhydra lutris. Mamm. Species 133:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ewer, R. F. 1968. Ethology of Mammals. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  124. Ewer, R. F. 1973. The Carnivores. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  125. Ewer, R. F., and C. Wemmer, 1974. The behaviour in captivity of the African civet, Civettictis civetta (Schreber). Z. Tierpsychol. 34:359–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Fagen, R. 1976. Exercise, play, and physical training in animals. Persp. Ethol. 2:189–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Fagen, R. 1977. Selection for optimal age-dependent schedules of play behavior. Amer. Nat. 111:395–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Fagen, R. 1981. Animal Play Behavior. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  129. Feddersen-Petersen, D. 1986a. Hundepsychologie: Wesen und Sozialverhalten. Stuttgart: Franckh’sche Verlagshandlung, W. Keller and Co.Google Scholar
  130. Feddersen-Petersen, D. 1986b. Observations on social play in some species of Canidae. Zoologischer Anzeiger 217:130–144.Google Scholar
  131. Fentress, J. C. 1985. Development of coordinated movement: Dynamic, relational and multileveled perspectives. In: M. G. Wade & H. T. A. Whiting, eds. Motor Skill Acquisition in Children: Aspects of Coordination and Control, pp. 1–26. Maastricht, Netherlands: NATO Advanced Study Institute.Google Scholar
  132. Fentress, J. C. 1986. Ethology and the neural sciences. In: R. Campan & R. Zavan, eds. Relevance of Models and Theory in Ethology, pp. 77–107. Toulouse, France: Privat IEC.Google Scholar
  133. Fentress, J. C, and Ryon, J. 1982. A long-term study of distributed pup feeding in captive wolves. In: F. H. Harrington & P. C. Paquet, eds. Wolves of the World: Perspectives of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, pp. 238–261. Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes.Google Scholar
  134. Fentress, J. C, Ryon, J., and McLeod, P. J. 1987. Coyote adult-pup interactions in the first three months. Canadian J. Zool. 65:760–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Feyerabend, P. 1975. Against Method. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  136. Fiero, B. C, and Verts, B. J. 1985. Age-specific reproduction in raccoons in northwestern Oregon. J. Mamm. 67:169–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Fink, W. L. 1982. The conceptual relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny. Paleobiology 8:254–264.Google Scholar
  138. Fitzgerald, B. M., and Karl, B. J. 1986. Home range of feral house cats (Felis catus L.) in forest of the Orongorongo Valley, Wallington, New Zealand. New Zealand J. Ecol. 9:71–81.Google Scholar
  139. Fox, M.W. 1969a. The anatomy of aggression and its ritualization in canidae: A developmental and comparative study. Behaviour 35:242–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Fox, M. W. 1969b. Ontogeny of prey killing behaviour in canidae. Behaviour 35:259–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Fox, M. W. 1970. A comparative study of the development of facial expressions in canids, wolf, coyote, and foxes. Behaviour 36:49–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Fox, M. W. 1971a. Behaviour of Wolves, Dogs and Related Canids. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  143. Fox, M. W. 1971b. Integrative Development of the Brain and Behavior of the Dog. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  144. Fox, M. W., ed. 1975. The Wild Canids: Their Systematics, Behavioral Ecology and Evolution. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  145. Fox, M. W., and Clark, A. L. 1971. The development and temporal sequencing of agonistic behavior in the coyotes (Canis latrans). Z. Tierpsychol. 28:262–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Frame, L. H., Malcolm, J. R., Frame, G., and van Lawick, H. 1979. Social organization of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) on the Serengeti Plains, Tanzania, 1967–1978. Z. Tierpsychol. 50:225–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Frank, L. G. 1986a. Social organization of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). I. Demography. Anim. Behav. 34:1500–1509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Frank, L. G. 1986b. Social organization of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). II. Dominance and reproduction. Anim. Behav. 34:1510–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Frank, L. G., Davidson, J. M., and Smith, E. R. 1985. Androgen levels in the spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta: The influence of social factors. J. Zool. 206:525–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Frelinger, J. A. 1972. The maintenance of transferring polymorphism in pigeons. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 69:326–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Fritts, S. H., and Mech, L. D. 1981. Dynamics, movements, and feeding ecology of a newly protected wolf population in northwestern Minnesota. Wildl. Monogr. 80:1–79.Google Scholar
  152. Fritzell, E. K. 1977. Dissolution of raccoon sibling bonds. J. Mamm. 58:427–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Fritzell, E. K. 1978. Aspects of raccoon (Procyon lotor) social organization. Canadian J. Zool 56:260–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Fritzell, E. K., Hubert, G. F., Jr., Meyen, B. E., and Sanderson, G. C. 1985. Age-specific reproduction in Illinois and Missouri raccoons. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 49:901–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Gaines, M. S., and McClenaghan, L. R. 1980. Dispersal in small mammals. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11:163–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Galef, B. G. 1981. The ecology of weaning: Parasitism and the achievement of independence by altricial mammals. In: D. J. Gubernick & P. H. Klopfer, eds. Parental Care in Mammals, pp. 211–241. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Garland, T. 1985. Ontogenetic and individual variation in size, shape and speed in the Australian agamid lizard Ampbiborlurus nuchalis. J. Zool. 207:425–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Garrott, R. A., Eberhardt, L. E., and Hanson, W. C. 1984. Arctic fox denning behavior in Alaska. Canadian J. Zool. 62:1636–1640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Garshelis, D. L, and Garshelis, J. A. 1984. Movements and management of sea otters in Alaska. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 48:665–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Garshelis, D. L., Johnson, A. M., and Garshelis, J. A. 1984. Social organization of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Canadian J. Zool. 62:2648–2658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Garton, D. W. 1984. Relationship between multiple locus heterozygosity and physiological correlates of growth in the estuarine gastropod Thais haemastoma. Physiol. Zool. 57:530–543.Google Scholar
  162. Garton, D. W., Koehn, R. K., and Scott, T. M. 1985. The physiological energetics of growth in the clam, Mulinia lateralis: An explanation for the relationship between growth rate and individual heterozygosity. In: P. E. Gibbs, ed. Proceedings XIX European Marine Biology Symposium, pp. 455–464. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  163. Gittleman, J. L. 1986a. Carnivore brain size, behavioral ecology, and phylogeny. J. Mamm. 67:23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Gittleman, J. L. 1986b. Carnivore life history patterns: Allometric, phylogenetic, and ecological associations. Amer. Nat. 127:744–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Gittleman, J. L., and Harvey, P. H. 1987. Compensatory life histories and natal denning patterns in carnivores. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  166. Glickman, S. E., Frank, L. G., Davidson, J. M., Smith, E. R., and Siiteri, P. K. 1987. Androstenedione may organize or activate sex-reversed traits in female spotted hyenas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 84:3444–3447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Golani, I. 1976. Homeostatic motor processes in mammalian interactions: A choreography of display. Persp. Ethol. 2:69–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Golding, R. R. 1969. Birth and the development of spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta, at the University of Ibadan Zoo, Nigeria. Internat. Zoo Yearb. 9:93–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Golightly, R. 1981. The comparative energetics of two desert canids: The coyote (Canis latrans) and the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis). Ph.D. dissert., Arizona State Univ., Tempe.Google Scholar
  170. Gould, S. J. 1977. Ontogeny and Phytogeny. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  171. Gray, J. P., ed. 1985a. A Guide to Primate Sociobiological Theory and Research. New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files Press.Google Scholar
  172. Gray, J. P. 1985b. Primate Sociobiology. New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files Press.Google Scholar
  173. Greenwood, P. J. 1980. Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Anim. Behav. 28:1140–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Hanby, J. P., and Bygott, J. D. 1987. Emigration of subadult lions. Anim. Behav. 35:161–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Harcourt, A. H. 1978. Strategies of emigration and transfer by primates, with particular reference to gorillas. Z. Tierpsychol. 48:401–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Harcourt, A. H., and Stewart, K. J. 1981. Gorilla male relationships: Can differences during immaturity lead to contrasting reproductive tactics in adulthood? Anim. Behav. 29:206–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Harrington, F. H. 1986. Timber wolf howling playback studies: Discrimination of pup from adult howls. Anim. Behav. 34:1575–1577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Harrington, F. H. 1987. The man who cries wolf. Nat. Hist. 96:22, 24–26.Google Scholar
  179. Harrington, F. H., Mech, L. D., and Fritts, S. H. 1983. Pack size and wolf pup survival: Their relationship under varying ecological conditions. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 13:19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Harrison, D. J., and Gilbert, J. R. 1985. Denning ecology and movements of coyotes in Maine during pup rearing. J. Mamm. 66:712–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Harrison, D. J., and Harrison, J. A. 1984. Foods of adult Maine coyotes and their known-aged pups. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 48:922–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Havkin, Z., and Fentress, J. C. 1985. The form of combative strategy in interactions among wolf pups (Canis lupus). Z. Tierpsychol. 68:177–200.Google Scholar
  183. Hemmer, H. 1972. Snow leopard, Ounce Uncia uncia (Schreber, 1775). Mamm. Species 20:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Henry, J. D. 1986. Red Fox: The Catlike Canine. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Pres.Google Scholar
  185. Henry, J. D., and Herrero, S. M. 1974. Social play in the American black bear: Its similarity to canid social play and examination of its identifying characteristics. Amer. Zool. 14:371–389.Google Scholar
  186. Henschel, J. R., and Skinner, J. D. 1987. Social relationships and dispersal patterns in a clan of spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta, in the Kruger National Park. South African J. Zool. 22:18–24.Google Scholar
  187. Hill, H. L., and Bekoff, M. 1977. The variability of some motor components of social play and agonistic behaviour in infant Eastern coyotes, Canis latrans var. Anim. Behav. 25:907–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Himsworth, H. 1986. Scientific Knowledge and Philosophic Thought Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  189. Hinde, R. A. 1970. Animal Behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  190. Hinde, R. A. 1975. The concept of function. In: G. Baerends, C. G. Beer & A. Manning, eds. Function and Evolution in Behaviour, pp. 3–15. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  191. Hinton, H., and Dunn, A. 1967. Mongooses: Their Natural History and Behaviour. London: Oliver & Boyd.Google Scholar
  192. Jamieson, I. G. 1986. The functional approach to behavior: Is it useful? Amer. Nat. 127:195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Jean, Y., Bergeron, J.-M., Bisson, S., and Larocque, B. 1986. Relative age determination of coyotes, Canis latrans, from southern Quebec. Canadian Field-Nat. 100:483–487.Google Scholar
  194. Johnsingh, A. J. T. 1982. Reproductive and social behaviour of the dhole, Cuon alpinus (Canidae). J. Zool. 198:443–463.Google Scholar
  195. Johnston, T. D. 1982a. Learning and the evolution of developmental systems. In: H. C. Plotkin, ed. Learning, Development, and Culture, pp. 411–442. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  196. Johnston, T. D. 1982b. Selective costs and benefits in the evolution of learning. Adv. Study Behav. 12:65–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Keith, L. B. 1983. Population dynamics of wolves: In: L. N. Carbyn, ed. Wolves in Canada and Alaska, pp. 66-77. Canadian Wildlife Service Reports Series no 45. Edmonton.Google Scholar
  198. Kleiman, D. G. 1977. Monogamy in mammals. Q. Rev. Biol. 52:39–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Knight, S. W. 1978. Dominance hierarchies in captive coyote litters. M.Sc. thesis, Utah State Univ., Logan. 142 pp.Google Scholar
  200. Kortmulder, K. 1986. The congener: A neglected area in the study of behaviour. Acta Biotheoretica 35:39–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Kovacs, K. M., and Lavigne, D. M. 1986. Maternal investment and neonatal growth in phocid seals. J. Anim. Ecol. 55:1035–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Kruuk, H. 1972. The Spotted Hyena. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  203. Kruuk, H. H., and Parish, T. 1987. Changes in the size of groups and ranges of the European badger (Meles meles L.) in an area in Scotland. J. Anim. Ecol. 56:351–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Kuo, Z. Y. 1931. The genesis of the cat’s response to the rat. J. Comp. Psychol. 11:1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Lamprecht, J. 1979. Field observations on the behaviour and social system of the bateared fox, Otocyon megalotis Desmarest. Z. Tierpsychol. 49:260–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Latour, P. B. 1981a. Interactions between free-ranging, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps): A case of adult social play. Canadian J. Zool. 59:1775–1789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Latour, P. B. 1981b. Spatial relationships and behaviour of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps) concentrated on land during the ice-free season of Hudson Bay. Canadian J. Zool. 59:1763–1774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Lawrence, C. 1980. Individual differences in the mother-kitten relationship in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Ph.D. dissert., Univ. Edinburgh, Scotland. 248 pp.Google Scholar
  209. Lawrence, R. D. 1980. The study of life: A naturalist’s view. Proc. The Myrin Institute 35:1–43.Google Scholar
  210. Leary, R. F., Allendorf, F. W., and Knudsen, K. L. 1984. Superior developmental stability of heterozygotes at enzyme loci in salmonid fishes. Amer. Nat. 124:540–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Lee, P. C. 1984. Ecological constraints on the social development of vervet monkeys. Behaviour 91:245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Lehner, P. N. 1978. Coyote communication. In: M. Bekoff, ed. Coyotes: Biology, Behavior, and Management, pp. 127–162. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  213. Levins, R., and Lewontin, R. 1985. The Dialectical Biologist. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  214. Leyhausen, P. 1979. Cat Behavior. New York: Garland STPM Press.Google Scholar
  215. Liberg, O., and von Schantz, T. 1985. Sex-biased philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals: The Oedipus hypothesis. Amer. Nat. 126:129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Lillegraven, J. A., Thompson, S. D., McNab, B. K., and Patton, J. L. 1987. The origin of eutherian mammals. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 32:281–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Lindström, E. 1983. Condition and growth of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to food supply. J. Zool. 199:117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Lindström, E. 1986. Territory inheritance and the evolution of group living in carnivores. Anim. Behav. 34:1825–1835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Lloyd, H. G. 1980. The Red Fox. London: Batsford.Google Scholar
  220. Lockwood, R. 1976. An ethological analysis of social structure and affiliation in captive wolves. Ph.D. dissert., Washington Univ., St. Louis. 362 pp.Google Scholar
  221. Łomnicki, A. 1988. Population Ecology of Individuals. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  222. Lott, D. F. 1984. Intraspecific variation in social systems of wild vertebrates. Behaviour 88:266–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Lotze, J.-H., and Anderson, S. 1979. Raccoon, Procyon lotor. Mamm. Species 119:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Lunn, N. J. 1986. Observations of nonaggressive behavior between polar bear family groups. Canadian J. Zool. 64:2035–2037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Macdonald, D. W. 1980. Social factors affecting reproduction amongst red foxes. In: E. Zimen, ed. The Red Fox: Symposium on Behaviour and Ecology, pp. 123–175. The Hague: Junk.Google Scholar
  226. Macdonald, D. 1987. Running with the Fox. New York: Facts on File.Google Scholar
  227. Macdonald, D. W., and Moehlman, P. D. 1982. Cooperation, altruism, and restraint in the reproduction of carnivores. Persp. Ethol. 5:433–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. McFarland, D., ed. 1982. Functional Ontogeny. Boston: Pitman Advanced Publishing Program.Google Scholar
  229. McGrew, J. C. 1979. Kit fox, Vulpes macrotis Merriam. Mamm. Species 123:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Macpherson, A. H. 1969. The Dynamics of Canadian Arctic Fox Populations. Canadian Wildlife Service Reports Series, no. 8. Edmonton.Google Scholar
  231. McVittie, R. 1978. Nursing behavior of snow leopard cubs. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 4:159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Magee, B. 1973. Karl Popper. New York: Viking Press.Google Scholar
  233. Malcolm, J. 1986. Socio-ecology of bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis). J. Zool. 208:457–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Malcolm, J., and Marten, K. 1982. Natural selection and the communal rearing of pups in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Behav. Eco. Sociobiol. 10:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Malina, R. M., and Bouchard, C. eds. 1986. Sport and Human Genetics. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  236. Marks, J. S., and Redmond, R. L. 1987. Parental-offspring conflict and natal dispersal in birds and mammals: Comments on the Oedipus hypothesis. Amer. Nat. 129:158–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Martin, P. 1984a. The (four) whys and wherefores of play in cats: A review of functional, evolutionary, developmental and causal issues. In: P. K. Smith, ed. Play in Animals and Humans, pp. 71–94. New York: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  238. Martin, P. 1984b. The time and energy costs of play behaviour in the cat. Z. Tierpsychol. 64:298–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Martin, P., and Bateson, P. 1985a. The influence of experimentally manipulating a component of weaning on the development of play in domestic cats. Anim. Behav. 33:511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Martin, P., and Bateson, P. 1985b. The ontogeny of locomotor play in the domestic cat. Anim. Behav. 33:502–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Martin, P., and Bateson, P. 1986. Measuring Behaviour: An Introductory Guide. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  242. Martin, P., and Caro, T. M. 1985. On the functions of play and its role in behavioral development. Adv. Study Behav. 15:59–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Martin, R. D., and MacLarnon, A. M. 1985. Gestation period, neonatal size and maternal investment in placental mammals. Nature 313:220–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Mason, W. 1979. Ontogeny of social behavior. In: P. Marier & J. G. Vandenbergh, eds. Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, vol. 3: Social Behavior and Communication, pp. 1–28. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  245. Maynard Smith, J., Burian, R., Kauffman, S., Alberch, P., Campbell, J., Goodwin, B., Lande, R., Raup, D., and Wolpert, L. 1985. Developmental constraints and evolution. Q. Rev. Biol. 60:265–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Mayr, E. 1961. Cause and effect in biology. Science 134:1501–1506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Mayr, E. 1974. Behavior programs and evolutionary strategies. Amer. Sci. 62:650–659.Google Scholar
  248. Mayr, E. 1983. How to carry our the adaptationist program? Amer. Nat. 121:324–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Meaney, M. J. 1988. The sexual differentiation of play. Trends Neurosci. 11:54–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Meaney, M. J., Stewart, J., and Beatty, W. W. 1985. Sex differences in social play: The socialization of sex roles. Adv. Study Behav. 15:1–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Mech, L. D. 1970. The Wolf. New York: Natural History Press, Doubleday.Google Scholar
  252. Mech, L. D. 1974. Gray wolf, Canis lupus Linnaeus. Mamm. Species 37:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Mech, L. D. 1975. Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 39:737–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Mech, L. D. 1988. Longevity in wild wolves. J. Mamm. 69:197–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Mech, L. D., and Seal, U. S. 1987. Premature reproductive activity in wild wolves. J. Mamm. 68:871–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Medjo, D. C, and Mech, L. D. 1976. Reproductive activity in nine-and ten-month old wolves. J. Mamm. 57:406–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Meier, G. W. 1981. The bounty of behavior. Devel. Psychobiol. 14:173–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Mendl, M. 1988. The effects of litter-size variation on the development of play behaviour in the domestic cat: Litters of one and two. Anim. Behav. 36:20–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Millar, J. S., Burkholder, D. A. L., and Lang, T. L. 1986. Estimating age at independence in small mammals. Canadian J. Zool. 64:910–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Mills, M. G. L. 1983. Mating and denning behaviour of the brown hyaena Hyaena brunnea and comparisons with other Hyaenidae. Z. Tierpsychol. 63:331–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Mills, M. G. L. 1984. The comparative behavioural ecology of the brown hyaena Hyaena brunnea and the spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta in the southern Kalahari. Koedoe Suppl. 1984:237–247.Google Scholar
  262. Mills, M. G. L. 1985. Related spotted hyaenas forage together but do not cooperate in rearing young. Nature 316:61–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Mitton, J. B., and Grant, M. C. 1984. Associations among protein heterozygosity, growth rate, and developmental homeostasis. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15:479–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Mitton, J. B., and Koehn, R. K. 1985. Shell shape variation in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., and its association with enzyme heterozygosity. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 90:73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Moehlman, P. D. 1983. Socioecology of silverbacked and golden jackals (Canis mesomelas and Canis aureus). In: J. F. Eisenberg & D. G. Kleiman, eds. Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior, pp. 423–453. American Society of Mammalogists Special Publication no. 7. Lawrence, Kan.: American Society of Mammalogists.Google Scholar
  266. Moehlman, P. D. 1986. Ecology of cooperation in canids. In: D. I. Rubenstein & R. W. Wrangham, eds. Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution: Birds and Mammals, pp. 64–86. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  267. Moehlman, P. D. 1987. Social organization in jackals. Amer. Sci. 75:366–375.Google Scholar
  268. Moelk, M. 1979. The development of friendly approach behavior in the cat: A study of kitten-mother relations and the cognitive development of the kitten from birth to eight weeks. Adv. Study Behav. 10:163–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Moore, J., and Ali, R. 1984. Are dispersal and inbreeding avoidance related? Anim. Behav. 32:94–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Murray, B. G. 1986. The influence of philosophy on the interpretation of interspecific aggression. Condor 88:543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Neal, E. 1986. The Natural History of Badgers. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  272. Nelissen, M. H. J. 1986. The effect of tied rank numbers on the linearity of dominance hierarchies. Behav. Processes 12:159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Oftedal, O. T. 1984. Lactation in the dog: Milk composition and intake by puppies. J. Nutr. 114:803–812.Google Scholar
  274. Ortega, J. C. 1988. Activity patterns of different-aged coyote (Canis latrans) pups in southeastern Arizona. J. Mamm. In press.Google Scholar
  275. Ortega, J. C, and Bekoff, M. 1987. Avian play: Comparative evolutionary and developmental trends. Auk 104:338–341.Google Scholar
  276. Owens, D. D., and Owens, M. J. 1979. Communal denning and clan associations in brown hyenas (Hyaena brunnea Thunberg) of the central Kalahari Desert. African J. Ecol. 17:35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Owens, D. D., and Owens, M. J. 1984. Helping behavior in brown hyenas. Nature 308:843–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Owens, M. J., and Owens, D. D. 1978. Feeding ecology and its influence on social organization of brown hyenas (Hyaena brunnea) of the central Kalahari. East African Wildl. J. 16:113–135.Google Scholar
  279. Packard, J. M. Seal, U. S., Mech, L. D., and Plotka, E. D. 1985. Causes of reproductive failure in two family groups of wolves (Canis lupus). Z. Tierpsychol. 68:24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Panksepp, J., Siviy, S., and Normanseil, L. 1984. The psychobiology of play: Theoretical and methodological perspectives. Neurosci. & Biobehav. Rev. 8:465–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Paradiso, J. L., and Nowak, R. M. 1972. Red wolf Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman. Mamm. Species 22:1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Peck, J. R., and Feldman, M. W. 1986. The evolution of helping behavior in large, randomly mixed populations. Amer. Nat. 127:209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Peters, G. 1984. On the structure of friendly close range vocalizations in terrestrial carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: Fissipedia). Z. Säugetierk. 49:157–182.Google Scholar
  284. Poole, T. B. 1966. Aggressive play in polecats. Symp. Zool. Soc. London 18:23–44.Google Scholar
  285. Powell, R. A. 1982. The Fisher: Life History, Ecology, and Behavior. Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Powers, D. A., DiMichele, L., and Place, A. R. 1983. The use of enzyme kinetics to predict cellular metabolism, developmental rate, and swimming peformance between LDH-B genotypes of the fish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Isoenzymes: Current Topics Biol. Med. Res. 10:147–170.Google Scholar
  287. Pruitt, C. H. 1974. Social behavior of young captive black bears. Ph.D. dissert., Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville.Google Scholar
  288. Pusey, A. E. 1987. Sex-biased dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in birds and mammals. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10:295–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Pusey, A. E., and Packer, C. 1987. The evolution of sex-biased dispersal in lions. Behaviour 101:275–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Pyrah, D. 1984. Social distribution and population estimates of coyotes in north-central Montana. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 48:679–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Rabinowitz, A. R., and Nottingham, B. G. 1986. Ecology and behaviour of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Belize, Central America. J. Zool. 210:149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Ralls, K. 1977. Sexual dimorphism in mammals: Avian models and unanswered questions. Amer. Nat. 111:917–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Ralls, K., Brownell, R. L., Jr., and Ballou, J. 1980. Differential mortality by sex and age in mammals, with specific reference to the sperm whale. Rep. Internat. Whale Comm. 2:233–243.Google Scholar
  294. Ramsey, M. A., and Dunbrack, R. L. 1986 Physiological constraints on life history phenomena: The example of small bear cubs at birth. Amer. Nat. 127:735–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Ramsey, M. A., and Stirling, I. 1986a. Long-term effects of drugging and handling free-ranging polar bears. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 50:619–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Ramsey, M. A., and Stirling, I. 1986b. On the mating system of polar bears. Canadian J. Zool. 64:2142–2151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Rasa, O. A. E. 1973. Prey capture, feeding techniques, and their ontogeny in the African dwarf mongoose, Helogale undulata refula. Z. Tierpsychol. 32:449–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Rasa, O. A. E. 1977. The ethology and sociology of the dwarf mongoose (Helogale undulata rufula). Anim. Behav. 32:579–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Rasa, O. A. E. 1984. A motivational analysis of object play in juvenile dwarf mongooses (Helogale undulata rufula). Anim. Behav. 32:579–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Reich, A. 1978. A case of inbreeding in the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus, in the Kruger National Park. Koedoe 21:119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Reich, A. 1981. The behavior and ecology of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Kruger National Park. Ph.D. dissert., Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn. 425 pp.Google Scholar
  302. Riedman, M. L. 1982. The evolution of alloparental care and adoption in mammals and birds. Quart Rev. Biol. 57:405–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Rogers, L. L. 1987. Effects of food supply and kinship on social behavior, movements, and population growth of black bears in northeastern Minnesota. Wildl. Monogr. 97:1–72.Google Scholar
  304. Rood, J. P. 1978. Dwarf mongoose helpers at the den. Z. Tierpsychol. 48:277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Rood, J. P. 1980. Mating relationships and breeding suppression in the dwarf mongoose. Anim. Behav. 28:143–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Rood, J. P. 1983. The social system of the dwarf mongoose. In: J. F. Eisenberg & D. G. Kleiman, eds. Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior, pp. 454–488. American society of Mammalogists Special Publication no. 7. Lawrence, Kan.: American Society of Mammalogists.Google Scholar
  307. Rood, J. P. 1986. Ecology and social evolution in the mongooses. In: D. I. Rubenstein & R. W. Wrangham, eds. Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution: Birds and Mammals, pp. 131–152. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  308. Rosatte, R. C, and Gunson, J. R. 1984. Dispersal and home range of striped skunks, Mephitis mephitis, in an area of population reduction in southern Alberta. Canadian Field-Nat. 98:315–319.Google Scholar
  309. Rowell, T. 1979. How would we know if social organization were not adaptive? In: I. S. Bernstein & E. O. Smith, eds. Primate Ecology and Human Origins: Ecological Influences on Social Organization, pp. 1–22. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  310. Rowe-Rowe, D. T. 1978. The small carnivores of Natal. Lammergeyer 25:1–48.Google Scholar
  311. Rowe-Rowe, D. T. 1982. Home range movements of black-backed jackals in an African montane region. South African J. Wildl. Res. 12:79–84.Google Scholar
  312. Rowe-Rowe, D. T. 1984. Black-backed jackal population structure in the Natal Drakensberg. Lammergeyer 32:1–7.Google Scholar
  313. Rudnai, J. A. 1973. The Social Life of the Lion. Wallingford, Pa.: Washington Square.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Rushen, J. 1982. Development of social behaviour in chickens: A factor analysis. Behav. Processes 7:319–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Ryan, J. E. 1975. The inheritance of track performance in greyhounds. M.Sc. thesis, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.Google Scholar
  316. Ryon, J. 1986. Den digging and pup care in captive coyotes (Canis latrans). Canadian J. Zool. 64:1582–1585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Sallaberry, M. 1985. Wounds due to flipper bands on penguins. J. Field Ornithol. 56:275–277.Google Scholar
  318. Schaller, G. B. 1967. The Deer and the Tiger. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  319. Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti Lion. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  320. Schleidt, W. 1982. Stereotyped feature variables are essential constituents of behaviour patterns. Behaviour 79:230–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Schleidt, W., and Crawley, J. N. 1980. Patterns in the behaviour of organisms. J. Social Biol. Struct. 3:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Schleidt, W., Yakalis, G., Donnelly, M., and McGarry, J. 1984. A proposal for a standard ethogram, exemplified by an ethogram of the bluebreasted quail (Coturnix chinensis). Z. Tierpsychol. 64:193–220.Google Scholar
  323. Schneider, D. G., Mech, L. D., and Tester, J. R. 1971. Movements of female raccoons and their young as determined by radio-tracking. Anim. Behav. Monogr. 4:1–43.Google Scholar
  324. Schneirla, T. C, Rosenblatt, J. S., and Tobach, E. 1963. Maternal behavior in the cat. In: H. Rheingold, ed. Maternal Behavior in Mammals, pp. 122–168. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  325. Scott, J. P., and Fuller, J. L. 1965. Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  326. Scott, J. P., and Marston, M. V. 1950. Critical periods affecting normal and maladjustive social behavior in puppies. J. Genet. Psychol. 77:25–60.Google Scholar
  327. Seidensticker, J. C, Hornocker, M. G., Miles, W. V., and Messick, J. P. 1973. Mountain lion social organization in the Idaho Primitive Area. Wildl. Monogr. 35:1–60.Google Scholar
  328. Seradilla, J. M., and Ayala, F. J. 1983. Alloprocoptic selection: A mode of natural selection promoting polymorphism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:2022–2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Sheppey, K., and Bernard, R. T. F. 1984. Relative brain size in the mammalian carnivores of the Cape Province of South Africa. South African J. Zool. 19:305–308.Google Scholar
  330. Shields, W. M. 1982. Philopatry, Inbreeding, and the Evolution of Sex. Albany: State Univ. New York Press.Google Scholar
  331. Shields, W. M. 1983. Genetic considerations in the management of the wolf and other large vertebrates: An alternative view. In: L. N. Carbyn, ed. Wolves in Canada and Alaska, pp. 90-92. Canadian Wildlife Service Reports Series no. 45. Edmonton.Google Scholar
  332. Sieber, O. J. 1986. Acoustic recognition between mother and cubs in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Behaviour 96:130–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Silver, H., and Silver, W. T. 1969. Growth and behavior of the coyote-like canid of northern New England with observations on canid hybrids. Wildl. Monogr. 17:1–41.Google Scholar
  334. Slater, P. J. B. 1986. Individual differences and dominance hierarchies. Anim. Behav. 34:1264–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Slobodkin, L. B. 1986. The role of minimalism in art and science. Amer. Nat. 127:257–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Snow, C. J. 1967. Some observations on the behavioral and morphological development of coyote pups. Amer. Zool. 7:353–355.Google Scholar
  337. Stanislaw, H., and Brain, P. F. 1983. The systematic response of male mice to differential housing: A path-analytical approach. Behav. Processes 8:165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Sternberg, R. J. 1985. Human intelligence: The model is the message. Science 230:1111–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Stirling, I., and Latour, P. B. 1978. Comparative hunting abilities of polar bear cubs of different ages. Canadian J. Zool. 56:1768–1772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Stockman, E. R., Callagnan, R. S., Gallagher, C. A., and Baum, M. J. 1986. Sexual differentiation of play behavior in the ferret. Behav. Neurosci. 100:563–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Storm, G. L., Andrews, R. D., Phillips, R. L., Bishop, R. A., Siniff, D. B., and Tester, J. R. 1976. Morphology, reproduction, dispersal, and mortality of midwestern red fox populations. Wildl. Monogr. 49:1–82.Google Scholar
  342. Sunquist, M. E. 1981. The social organization of tigers (Panthera tigris) in Royal Chitawan National Park, Nepal. Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 336:1–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Sussman, R. W. 1977. Socialization, social structure, and ecology of two sympatric species of Lemur. In: S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff & F. E. Poirier, eds. Primate Bio-Social Development, pp. 515–528. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  344. Symons, D. 1979. The Evolution of Human Sexuality. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  345. Tan, P. L., and Counsilman, J. J. 1985. The influence of weaning on prey-catching behaviour in kittens. Z. Tierpsychoi. 70:148–164.Google Scholar
  346. Theberge, J B. 1983. Considerations in wolf management related to genetic variability and adaptive change. In: L. N. Carbyn, ed. Wolves in Canada and Alaska, pp. 86-89. Canadian Wildlife Service Reports Series no. 45. Edmonton.Google Scholar
  347. Thomas, P. O., and Taber, S. M. 1984. Mother-infant interaction and behavioral development in southern right whales, Eubalaema australis. Behaviour 88:42–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Thompson, N. S. 1981. Toward a falsifiable theory of evolution. Persp. Ethol. 4:51–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Tinbergen, N. 1951. The Study of Instinct. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  350. Tinbergen, N. 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Z. Tierpsychol. 20:410–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Toulouse, G., Dehaene, S., and Changeux, J.-P. 1986. Spin glass model of learning by selection. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 83:1695–1698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Tullar, B. F., Jr., and Berchielli, L. T., Jr. 1980. Movement of the red fox in central New York. N.Y. Fish and Game J. 27:179–204.Google Scholar
  353. van der Merwe, N. J. 1953a. The coyote and the black-backed jackal. Flora and Fauna 3:45–51.Google Scholar
  354. van der Merwe, N. J. 1953b. The jackal. Flora and Fauna 4:4–80.Google Scholar
  355. van der Molen, P. P. 1984. Bi-stability of emotions and motivations: An evolutionary consequence of the open-ended capacity for learning. Acta Biotheor. 33:227–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. van Dongen, P. A. M. and van den Bercken, J. H. L. 1981. Structure and function in neurobiology: A conceptual framework and the localization of functions. Internat. J. Neurosci. 15:49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. van Lawick, H., and van Lawick, J. 1970. Innocent Killers. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  358. Vilijoen, S. 1980. Early postnatal development, parental care and interaction in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo. South African J. Zool. 15:119–120.Google Scholar
  359. Vincent, L. E., and Bekoff, M. 1978. Quantitative analyses of the ontogeny of predatory behaviour in coyotes, Canis latrans. Anim. Behav. 26:225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Wandrey, R. 1975. Contribution to the study of social behaviour of golden jackals (Canis aureus L.). Z. Tierpsychol. 39:365–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Waser, P. M. 1985. Does competition drive dispersal? Ecology 66:1170–1175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Waser, P. M., and Jones, W. T. 1983. Natal philopatry among solitary mammals. Quart. Rev. Biol. 58:355–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Watson, J. D. 1986. Foreward. In: H. Himsworth, Scientific Knowledge and Philosophic Thought. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  364. Watt, W. B., Carter, P. A., and Donohue, K. 1986. Females’ choice of “good genotypes” as mates is promoted by an insect mating system. Science 233:1187–1190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Wayne, R. K. 1986. Cranial morphology of domestic and wild canids: The influence of development on morphological change. Evolution 40:243–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Weatherhead, P. J. 1986a. How unusual are unusual events? Amer. Nat. 128:150–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Weatherhead, P. J. 1986b. Erratum. How unusual are unusual events? Amer. Nat. 128:942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Wemmer, C. M. 1977. Comparative ethology of the large-spotted genet (Genetta tigrina) and some related viverrids. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 239:1–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Wemmer, C. M., and Fleming, M. J. 1974. Ontogeny of playful contact in a social mongoose, the meerkat, Suricata suricatta. Amer. Zool. 14:415–426.Google Scholar
  370. West, M. 1974. Social play in the domestic cat. Amer. Zool. 14:427–436.Google Scholar
  371. Wiley, R. H. 1981. Social structure and individual ontogenies: Problems of description, mechanism, and evolution. Persp. Ethol. 4:105–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Williams, G. C. 1985. A defense of reductionism in evolutionary biology. In: R. Dawkins & M. Ridley, eds. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, pp. 1–27. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  373. Wilson, E. O. 1975. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  374. Windle, W. F. 1940. Physiology of the Fetus: Origin and Extent of Function in Prenatal Life. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Yamamoto, I. 1984. Latrine utilization and feces recognition in the raccoon dog. J. Ethol. 2:47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Yamamoto, I. 1987. Male parental care in the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, during the early rearing period. In J. L. Brown & K. Kikkawa, eds. Animal Societies: Theories and Facts, pp. 189–195. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press.Google Scholar
  377. Zimen, E. 1976. On the regulation of pack size in wolves. Z. Tierpsychol. 40:300–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Zimen, E. 1981. The Wolf: A Species in Danger. New York: Delacorte.Google Scholar
  379. Zimen, E. 1982. A wolf pack sociogram. In: F. H. Harrington & P. C. Paquet, eds. Wolves of the World: Perspectives of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, pp. 282–322. Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Bekoff

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations