Male Physical Aggression, Social Dominance and Testosterone Levels at Puberty

A Developmental Perspective
  • Richard E. Tremblay
  • Benoist Schaal
  • Bernard Boulerice
  • Louise Arseneault
  • Robert Soussignan
  • Daniel Pérusse
Part of the Nato ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 292)


“On June 1, 1889, Charles Édouard Brown-Séquard, a prominent French physiologist, announced at the Société de Biologie in Paris that he had devised a rejuvenating therapy for the body and mind. The 72-year-old professor reported that he had drastically reversed his own decline by injecting himself with a liquid extract derived from the testicles of dogs and guinea pigs. These injections, he told his audience, had increased his physical strength and intellectual energy, relieved his constipation and even lengthened the arc of his urine” (Hoberman & Yesali, 1995, p.77).

Testosterone (T) is an androgen hormone produced mainly by the testes. Its production is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonads (HPG) axis. Towards the end of the first trimester of pregnancy (10–12 weeks) male fetuses have higher plasmatic levels of T than female fetuses. Peak levels ofT are obtained by the middle of the second trimester. During the third trimester no sex differences in T level have been detected, although there is evidence of some testicular activity (Forest, 1989).


Aggressive Behavior Testosterone Level Antisocial Behavior Physical Aggression Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Archer, J. (1988). The behavioural biology of aggression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Archer, J. (1991). The influence of testosterone on human aggression. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 1–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Archer, J. (1994). Testosterone and aggression. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 21(3-4), 3–39.Google Scholar
  4. Bambino, T. H., & Hsueh, A. J. (1981). Direct inhibitory effect of glucorticoids upon testicular luteinizing hormone receptor and steroidogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Endocrinology, 108(6), 2142–2148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Belsky, J., Steinberg, L., & Draper, P. (1991). Childhood experience, interpersonal development and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development, 62, 647–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berenbaum, S. A., & Snyder, E. (1995). Early hormonal influences on childhood sex-typed activity and playmate preferences: Implications for the development of sexual orientation. Developmental Psychology, 31(1), 31–42.Google Scholar
  7. Bishop, D. T., Meikle, A. W., Slattery, M. L., Stringham, J. D., Ford, M. H., & West, D. W. (1988). The effect of nutritional factors on sex hormone levels in male twins. Genetics and Epidemiology, 5, 43–59.Google Scholar
  8. Boivin, M., & Vi taro, F. (1995). The impact of peer relationships on aggression in childhood: Inhibition through coercion or promotion through peer support. In J. McCord (Ed.), Coercion and punishment in long-term perspectives. (pp. 183–197). New York: Cambridge Press.Google Scholar
  9. Booth, A., Shelley, G., Mazur, A., Tharp, G., & Kittok, R. (1989). Testosterone, and winning and losing in human competition. Hormones and Behavior, 23(2), 556–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brain, P. F. (1979). Hormones and Aggression. Montreal: Eden Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cho, H., Sanayama, K., Sasaki, N., & Nakajima, H. (1985). Salivary testosterone concentration and testicular volume in male infants. Endocrinology, 32(1), 135–140.Google Scholar
  12. Christiansen, K., & Knussmann, R. (1987). Androgen levels and components of aggressive behavior in men. Hormones and Behavior, 21, 170–180.Google Scholar
  13. Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1990). Peer group behavior and social status. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Collu, R., Gibb, W., & Ducharme, J. R. (1984). Effects of stress on the gonadal function. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 7(5), 529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Constantino, J. N., Grosz, D., Saenger, P., Chandler, D. W., Nandi, R., & Earls, F. J. (1993). Testosterone and aggression in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(6), 1217–1222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook, N.J., Read, G. F., Walker, R. F., Harris, B., & Riad-Fahmy, D. (1992). Salivary cortisol and testosterone as markers of stress in normal subjects in abnormal situations. In C. Kirschbaum, G. F. Read, & D. H. Hellhammer (Eds.), Assessment of hormones and drugs in saliva in biobehavioral research. (pp. 147–162). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Cummings, E. M., Iannotti, R. J., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1989). Aggression between peers in early childhood: Individual continuity and developmental change. Child Development, 60(4), 887–895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dabbs, J. M. J. (1991). Salivary testosterone measurements: Reliability across hours. days, and weeks. Physiology and Behavior, 48, 83–86.Google Scholar
  19. Dabbs, J. M. J. (1992a). Testosterone and occupational achievement. Social Forces, 70, 813–824.Google Scholar
  20. Dabbs, J. M. J. (1992b). Testosterone measurements in social and clinical psychology. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 11, 302–321.Google Scholar
  21. Dabbs, J. M. J., Frady, R. L., Carr, T. S., & Besch, N. F. (1987). Saliva testosterone and criminal violence in young adult prison inmates. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 174–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dabbs, J. M. J., & Morris, R. (1990). Testosterone, social class, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 4,462 men. Psychological Science, 1(3), 209–211.Google Scholar
  23. de Waal, F. (1982). Chimpanzee Politics. New York: Harper Colophon.Google Scholar
  24. Dittmann, R. W., Kappes, M. E., & Kappes, M. H. (1992). Sexual behavior in adolescent and adult females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17, 153–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ducharme, J. R., Forest, M.G., de Peretti, E., Sempé, M., Collu, R., & Bertrand, J. (1976). Plasma adrenal and gonadal sex steroids in human pubertal development. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 42, 468–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Eaton, G., Goy, R., & Phoenix, C. (1973). Effects of testosterone treatment in adulthood on sexual behavior of female pseudohennophrodite rhesus monkeys. Nature, 242, 119–120.Google Scholar
  27. Eichelman, B. (1992). Aggressive behavior: From laboratory to clinic: Quo Vadis? Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(5), 488–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Elias, M. (1981). Serum cortisol, testosterone, and testosterone-binding globulin responses to competitive fighting in human males. Aggressive Behavior, 7, 215–224.Google Scholar
  29. Elliott, D. S. (1994). Serious violent offenders: Onset, developmental course and termination: The American Society of Criminology 1993 Presidential Address. Criminology, 32(1), 1–21.Google Scholar
  30. Ellis, L., & Coontz, P. D. (1990). Androgens, brain functionning, and criminality: The neurohormonal foundations of antisociality. In L. Ellis & H. Hoffman (Eds.), Crime in biological, social and moral contexts. (pp. 162–193). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  31. Ellis, L.. & Nyborg, H. (1992). Racial/ethnic variations in male testosterone levels. Steroids, 57, 72–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Eysenck, H. J., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (1989). The causes and cures of criminality. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  33. Finkelstein, J. W., von Eye, A., & Preece, M. A. (1994). The relationship between aggressive behavior and puberty in normal adolescents: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 15, 319–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Forest, M.G. (1981). Control of the onset of puberty. In R. Crosignani (Ed.). Endocrinology human infertility: New aspects. (pp. 267–306). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Forest, M.G. (1989). Androgens in childhood. Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology, 19, 104–129.Google Scholar
  36. Forest, M.G., Sizonenko, P. C., Cathiard, A.M., & Berland, J. (1974). Hypophyso-gonadal function in humans during the first year of life. I. Evidence for testicular activity in early infancy. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 53, 819–828.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gladue, B. A. (1991). Qualitative and quantitative sex differences in self-reported aggressive behavioral characteristics. Psychological Reports, 68(2), 675–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gladue, B. A., Boechler, M., & McCaul, K. D. (1989). Hormonal response to competition in human males. Aggressive Behavior, 15(6), 409–422.Google Scholar
  39. Goy, R. W., Bercovitch, F. B., & McBrair, M. C. (1988). Behavioral masculinization is independent of genital masculinization in prenatally androgenized female rhesus macaques. Hormones and Behavior, 22, 552–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Goy, R. W., & McEwen, B. S. (1980). Sexual differentiation of the brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  41. Gray, A., Jackson, D. N., & McKinlay, J. B. (1991). The relation between dominance, anger, and honnones in normally aging men: Results from the Massachusetts male aging study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 375–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Haapasalo, J., & Tremblay, R. E. (1994). Physically aggressive boys from ages 6 to 12: Family background. parenting behavior, and prediction of delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(5), 1044–1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Halpern, C. T., & Udry, J. R. (1992). Variation in adolescent hormone measures and implications for behavioral research. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2, 103.Google Scholar
  44. Halpern, C. T., Udry, J. R., Campbell, B., & Suchindran, C. (1993a). Relationships between aggression and pubertal increases in testosterone: A panel analysis of adolescent males. Social Biology, 40(1-2), 8–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Halpern, C. T., Udry, J. R., Campbell, B., & Suchindran, C. (1993b). Testosterone and pubertal development as predictors of sexual activity: A panel analysis of adolescent males. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55(5), 436–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Higley, J.D., Mehlman, P. T., Taub, D. M., Higley, S. B., Suomi, S. J., Linnoila, M., & Vickers, J. H. (1992). Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine and adrenal correlates of aggression in free-ranging Rhesus monkeys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(6).Google Scholar
  47. Hill, P., Wynder, E. L., Garbaczewski, L., Games, H., & Walker, A. R. P. (1979). Diet and urinary steroids in black and white North American men and black South African men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 42, 127–134.Google Scholar
  48. Hines, M. (1982). Prenatal gonadal hormones and sex differences in human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 56–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hines, M., & Kaufman, F. R. (1994). Androgen and the development of human sex-typical behavior: Rough-and-tumble play and sex of preferred playmates in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Child Development, 65, 1042–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoberman, J. M., & Yesali, C. E. (1995). The history of synthetic testosterone. Scientific American, 272, 76–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Huhtaniemi, I., Dunkel, L., & Perheentupa, J. (1986). Transient increase in postnatal testicular activity is not revealed by longitudinal measurements of salivary testosterone. Pediatric Research, 20(12), 1324–1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Inoff-Germain, G., Arnold, G. S., Nottelmann, E. D., Susman, E. J., Cutler, G. B., & Chrousos, G. P. (1988). Relations between hormone levels and observational measures of aggressive behavior of young adolescents in family interactions. Developmental Psychology, 24, 129–139.Google Scholar
  53. Johnson, H. R., Myhre, S. A., & Ruvalcaba, R. H. (1970). Effects of testosterone on body image and behavior in Klinefelter’s syndrome: A pilot study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 12(4), 454–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Keverne, E. B. (1992). Primate social relationships: Their determinants and consequences. Advance Study Behavior, 21(1).Google Scholar
  55. Kindlon, D. J., Tremblay, R. E., Mezzacappa, E., Earls, F., Laurent, D., & Schaal, B. (1995). Longitudinal patterns of heart rate and fighting behavior in 9 through 12 year old boys. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(3), 371–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kingston, L., & Prior, M. (1995). The development of patterns of stable, transient, and school-age onset aggressive behavior in young children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 348–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Malo, J., & Tremblay, R. E. (1997). The impact of paternal alcoholism and maternal social position on boy’s school adjustment, pubertal maturation and sexual behaviour: A test of two competing hypotheses. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and allied disciplines, 38(2).Google Scholar
  58. Marmot, M. G. (1994). Social differentials in health within and between populations. Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 123(4), 197–216.Google Scholar
  59. Marmot, M.G., Kogevinas, M., & Elston, M.A. (1987). Social/economic status and disease. Annual Revenue of Public Health, 8, 111–137.Google Scholar
  60. Marshall, W. A., & Tanner, J. M. (1969). Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 44, 13–23.Google Scholar
  61. Mattson, A., Schalling, D., Olweus, D., Low, H., & Svenson, J. (1980). Plasma testosterone, aggressive behavior, and personality dimensions in young male delinquents. Journal of the American Academy for Child Psychiatry, 19, 476–490.Google Scholar
  62. Mazur, A., Booth, A., & Dabbs Jr, J. M. (1992). Testosterone and chess competition. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55(1), 70–77.Google Scholar
  63. Mazur, A., & Lamb, T. A. (1980). Testosterone, status, and mood in human males. Hormones and Behavior, 14, 236–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. McBurnett, K., Lahey, B. B., Frick, P. J., Risch, S. C., Loeber, R., Hart, E. L., Christ, M. A. G., & Hanson, K. S. (1991). Anxiety, inhibition, and conduct disorder in children: II. Relation to salivary cortisol. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(2), 192–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. McCaul, K. D., Gladue, B. A., & Joppa, M. (1992). Winning, losing, mood, and testosterone. Hormones and Behavior, 26, 486–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Meikle, A. K., Bishop, D. T., Stringham, J.D., & West, D. W. (1987). Quantitating genetic and nongenetic factors that determine plasma sex steroid variation in normal male twins. Metabolism, 35, 1090–1095.Google Scholar
  67. Meikle, A. K., Stringham, J. D., Bishop, D. T., & West, D. W. (1988). Quantitating genetic and non genetic factors influencing androgen production and clearance rates in men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 67, 104–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mezzacappa, E., Tremblay, R. E., Kindlon, D., Saul, J. P., Arseneault, L., Seguin, J., Pihl, R. O., & Earls, F. (in press). Anxiety, antisocial behavior and heart rate regulation in adolescent males. Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  69. Miller, E. M., & Martin, N. (1995). Analysis of the effect of hormones on opposite-sex twin attitudes. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemmellologiae, 44(1), 41–52.Google Scholar
  70. Money, J., & Schwartz, M. (1976). Fetal androgens in the early treated adrenogenital syndrome of 46XX hermaphroditism: Influence on assertive and aggressive types of behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 2, 19–30.Google Scholar
  71. Nieschlag, E. (1974). Circadian rhythms of plasma testosterone. In J. Aschoff, F. Ceresa, & F. Halberg (Eds.), Chronobiological aspects of endocrinology. (pp. 117–120). Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag.Google Scholar
  72. Noël, J. M., Leclerc, D., & Strayer, F. F. (1990). Une analyse fonctionnelle du répertoire social des enfants d’àge pré-scolaire en groupe de pairs. Enfance, 45(4), 405–421.Google Scholar
  73. Nottelman, E. D., Inoff-Gennain, G., Susman, E. J., & Chrousos, G. P. (1990). Hormones and behavior at puberty. In J. Bancroft & J. M. Reinisch (Eds.), Adolescence and Puberty. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Olweus, D. (1988). Development of a multifaceted aggression inventory for boys. Reports from the Institute of Psychology (No.6). Bergen: University of Bergen.Google Scholar
  75. Olweus, D., Mattsson, A., Schalling, D., & Low, H. (1980). Testosterone, aggression, physical, and personality dimensions in normal adolescent males. Psychosomatic Medicine, 42, 253–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Olweus, D., Mattsson, A., Schalling, D., & Low, H. (1988). Circulating testosterone levels and aggression in adolescent males: A causal analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50, 261–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Petersen, A. C., Crockett, L., Richards, M., & Boxer, A. (1988). A self-report measure of pubertal status: Reliability, validity, and initial norms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17(2), 117–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Power, C., Manor, O., & Fox, J. (1991). Health and class: The early years. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  79. Reinisch, J. M. (1981). Prenatal exposure to synthetic progestins increases potential for aggression in humans. Science, 211, 1171–1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Reiss, A. J., & Roth, J. A. (Ed.). (1993). Understanding and preventing violence. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  81. Resnick, S. M., Berenbaum, S. A., Gottesman, I. I., & Bouchard, T. (1986). Early hormonal influences on cognitive functioning in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Developmental Psychology, 22, 191–198.Google Scholar
  82. Restoin, A., Montagner, H., Rodriguez, D., Girardot, J. J., Laurent, D., Kontar, F., Ullmann, V., Casagrande, C., & Talpain, B. (1985). Chronologie des comportements de communication et profils de comportement chez le jeune enfant. In R. E. Tremblay, M.A. Provost, & F. F. Strayer (Eds.), Ethologie et développement de l’enfant. (pp. 93–130). Paris: Editions Stock/Laurence Pernoud.Google Scholar
  83. Riad-Fahmy, D., Read, G. F., Walker, R. F., & Griffiths, K. (1982). Steroids in saliva for assessing endocrine function. Endocrine Reviews, 3, 367–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rose, R. M., Bernstein, I. S., & Gordon, T. P. (1975). Consequences of social conflict on plasma testosterone levels in Rhesus Monkeys. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37, 50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Ross, R. Bernstein, L., Judd, H., Hanisch, R., Pike, M., & Henderson, B. (1986). Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 76, 45–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sakai, L. M., Baker, L. A., Jacklin, C. N., & Shulman, I. (1991). Sex steroids at birth: Genetic and environmental variation and covariation. Developmental Psychobiology, 24(8), 559–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Sapolsky, R. (1983). Individual differences in cortisol secretory patterns in the wild baboon: Role of negative feedback sensitivity. Endocrinology, 113, 2263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sapolsky, R. M. (1991). Testicular function, social rank and personality among wild baboons. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 16(4), 281–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sapolsky, R. M. (1992a). Neuroendocrinology of the stress-response. In J. B. Becker, S. M. Breedlove, & D. Crews (Eds.), Behavioral Endocrinology. (pp. 287–324). Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  90. Sapolsky, R. M. (Ed.). (1992b). Stress, the aging brain, and the mechanisms of neuron death. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  91. Savin-Williams, R. C. (1979). Dominance hierarchies in groups of early adolescents. Child Development, 511, 923–935.Google Scholar
  92. Schaal, B., Tremblay, R. E., Soussignan, R. G., Paquette, D., & Laurent, D. (1996). Aggression, testosterone and physical development in early adolescence: A longitudinal perspective. Aggressive Behavior.Google Scholar
  93. Schaal, B., Tremblay, R. E., Soussignan, R., & Susman, E. J. (1996). Male testosterone linked to high social dominance but low physical aggression in early adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34.Google Scholar
  94. Séguin, J. R., Pihl, R. O., Boulerice, B., Tremblay, R. E., & Harden, P. W. (1996). Low pain sensitivity and stability of physical aggression in boys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 671–673.Google Scholar
  95. Séguin, J. R., Pihl, R. O., Harden, P. W., Tremblay, R. E., & Boulerice, B. (1995). Cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of physically aggressive boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(4), 614–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Soussignan, R., Tremblay, R. E., Schaal, B., Laurent, D., Larivée, S., Gagnon, C., LeBlanc, M., & Charlebois, P. (1992). Behavioural and cognitive characteristics of conduct disordered-hyperactive boys from age 6 to 11: A multiple informant perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,. 33(8), 1333–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Strayer, F. F., & Trudel, M. (1984). Developmental changes in the nature and function of social dominance among young children. Ethology and Sociobiology, 5, 279–295.Google Scholar
  98. Susman, E. J., Dorn, L. D., & Chrousos, G. P. (1991). Negative affect and hormone levels in young adolescents: Concurrent and predictive perspectives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20(2), 167–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Susman, E. J., Inoff-Germain, G., Nottelmann, E. D., Loriaux, D. L., Cutler, G. B., & Chrousos, G. P. (1987). Hormones, emotional dispositions, and aggressive attributes in young adolescents. Child Development, 58, 1114–1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Tanner, J. M. (1962). Growth at adolescence. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  101. Tremblay, R. E., Boulerice, B., Harden, P. W., McDuff, P., Pérusse, D., Pihl, R. O., & Zoccolillo, M. (in press). Do Canadian children become more aggressive as they approach adolescence? Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  102. Tremblay, R. E., Kurtz, L., Mâsse, L. C., Vitaro, F., & Pihl, R. O. (1995). A bimodal preventive intervention for disruptive kindergarten boys: Its impact through mid-adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(4), 560–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tremblay, R. E., Loeber, R., Gagnon, C., Charlebois, P., Larivee, S., & LeBlanc, M. (1991). Disruptive boys with stable and unstable high fighting behavior patterns during junior elementary school. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 285–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Tremblay, R. E., Masse, L. C., Pagani, L., & Vitaro, F. (1996). From childhood physical aggression to adolescent maladjustment: The Montréal Prevention Experiment. In R. D. Peters & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. (pp. 268–298). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  105. Tremblay, R. E., Pihl, R. O., Vitaro, F., & Dobkin, P. L. (1994). Predicting early onset of male antisocial behavior from preschool behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 732–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Tremblay, R. E., & Schaal, B. (1996). Physically aggressive boys from age 6 to 12 years: Their biopsychosocial status at puberty. In G. Ferris & T. Grisso (Eds.), Understanding aggressive behavior in children. 794 (pp. 192–208). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  107. Virkkunen, M., Kallio, E., Rawlings, R., Tokola, R., Poland, R. E., Guidotti, A., Nemeroff, C., Bissette, G., Kalogeras, K., Karonen, S.-L., & Linoila, M. (1994). Personality profiles and state aggressiveness in Finnish alcoholic, violent offenders, fire setters, and healthy volunteers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 20–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E., Gagnon, C., & Boivin, M. (1992). Peer rejection from kindergarten to grade 2: Outcomes, correlates, and prediction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 38(3), 382–400.Google Scholar
  109. Wadsworth, M. E. J. (1991). The imprint of time: Childhood, history, and adult life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  110. Wang, C., Plymale, S., Nieschlag, E., & Paulsen, C. (1981). Salivary testosterone in men: Further evidence of a direct correlation with free serum testosterone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 53, 1021–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wilson, J.D., George, F. W., & Griffin, J. E. (1981). The hormonal control of sexual development. Science, 211, 1278–1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Windle, R. C., & Windle, M. (1995). Longitudinal patterns of physical aggression: Associations with adult social, psychiatric, and personality functioning and testosterone levels. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 563–585.Google Scholar
  113. Winter, J. S. D., & Faiman, C. (1973). The development of cyclic pituitary-gonadal function in adolescent females. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 37, 714–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard E. Tremblay
    • 1
  • Benoist Schaal
    • 1
  • Bernard Boulerice
    • 1
  • Louise Arseneault
    • 1
  • Robert Soussignan
    • 1
  • Daniel Pérusse
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MontréalMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations