Steroid Hormone Regulation of Sexual Reproduction in Achlya

  • William E. Timberlake
  • William C. Orr


Anyone interested in biological regulation and development is familiar with conceptual advances stemming from work on “simple” eukaryotic microorganisms such as Saccharomyces (yeast), Neurospora, and Aspergillus. These fungi, as well as many others, have been and continue to be exceedingly valuable tools for furthering our understanding of the nature and organization of eukaryotic structural genes and in elucidating the elements and processes regulating their expression. There are several reasons for this. First, features of their life histories make them especially useful for genetic analysis. Most fungi can be grown in the haploid state, allowing direct observation of genotype. Many, however, anastomose readily to form heterokaryons, and some can be maintained as either haploids or diploids, simplifying analysis of genetic interactions. In addition, these organisms typically produce large numbers of reproductive cells in relatively short periods, have simple nutritional requirements, and lend themselves to a wide variety of selection strategies, all properties which facilitate genetic manipulations not generally possible with higher forms. Indeed, the sophistication of yeast genetics now rivals that of bacterial genetics.


Cross Wall Sexual Hormone Water Mold Hemp Seed Female Strain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexopoulos, C. J., and Mims, C. W., 1979, Introductory Mycology, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Arsenault, G. P., Biemann, K., Barksdale, A. W., and McMorris, T. C., 1968, The structure of antheridiol, a sex hormone in Achlya bisexualis, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90: 5635.Google Scholar
  3. Barksdale, A. W., 1962, Effect of nutritional deficiency on growth and sexual reproduction of Achlya ambisexualis, Am. J. Bot. 49: 633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barksdale, A. W., 1963a, The uptake of exogenous hormone A by certain strains of Achlya, Mycologia 55: 164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barksdale, A. W., 1963b, The role of hormone A during sexual conjugation in Achlya ambisexualis, Mycologia 55: 627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barksdale, A. W., 1967, The sexual hormones of the fungus Achlya, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 144:313.Google Scholar
  7. Barksdale, A. W., 1968, Meiosis in the antheridium of Achlya ambisexualis E87, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 84: 187.Google Scholar
  8. Barksdale, A. W., 1969, Sexual hormones of Achlya and other fungi, Science 166: 831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barksdale, A. W., 1970, Nutrition and antheridiol-induced branching in Achlya ambisexualis, Mycologia 62: 411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barksdale, A. W., and Lasure, L. L., 1973, Induction of gametangeal phenotypes in Achlya, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 100: 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartnicki-Garcia, S., 1970, Cell wall composition and other biochemical markers in fungal phylogeny, in: Phytochemical Phylogeny ( J. B. Harborne, ed.), pp. 81–103, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Bergink, E. W., Wallace, R. A., Van de Berg, J. A., Bos, E. S., Gruber, M., and Ab, G., 1974, Estrogen induced synthesis of yolk proteins in roosters, Am. Zool. 14: 1177.Google Scholar
  13. Cantino, E. C., 1950, Nutritional phylogeny in the water molds, Q. Rev. Biol. 25: 269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cantino, E. C., 1955, Physiology and phylogeny in the water molds—A reevaluation, Q. Rev. Biol. 30:138.Google Scholar
  15. Coker, W. C., 1927, Other water molds from the soil, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 42: 207.Google Scholar
  16. Dick, M. W., 1973, Saprolegniales, in: The Fungi ( F. K. Sparrow and A. S. Sussman, eds.), pp. 113–144, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Dick, M. W., and Win-Tin, 1973, The development of cytological theory in the Oomycetes, Biol. Rev. 48: 133.Google Scholar
  18. Edwards, J. A., Mills, J. S., Sundeen, J., and Fried, J. H., 1969, The synthesis of the fungal sex hormone antheridiol, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 91: 12–48.Google Scholar
  19. Edwards, J. A., Sundeen, J., Salmond, W., Iwadare, T., and Fried, J. H., 1972, A new synthetic route to the fungal sex hormone antheridiol and the determination of its absolute stereochemistry, Tetrahedron Lett. 1972 (9): 791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ellzey, J. T., 1974, Ultrastructural observations of meiosis within antheridia of Achlya ambisexualis, Mycologia 66: 32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ellzey, J. T., and Huizar, E., 1977, Synaptonemal complexes in antheridia of Achlya ambisexualis E87, Arch. Microbiol. 112: 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Flanagan, P. W., 1970, Meiosis and mitosis in Saprolegniaceae, Can J. Botany 48: 2069.Google Scholar
  23. Gooday, G. W., 1974, Fungal sex hormones, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 43: 35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gorski, J., and Gannon, F., 1976, Current models of steroid hormone action: A critique, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 38: 425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Green, D. M., Edwards, J. A., Barksdale, A. W., and McMorris, T. C., 1971, The isolation and structure of 23-deoxyantheridiol and the synthesis of its C-22 epimer, Tetrahedron 27: 11–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Griffin, D. H., 1966, Effect of electrolytes on differentiation of Achlyasp., Plant Physiol. 41: 1254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Griffin, D. H., and Breuker, C., 1969, Ribonucleic acid synthesis during the differentiation of sporangia in the water mold Achlya, J. Bacteriol. 98: 689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Griffin, D. H., Timberlake, W. E., and Cheney, J. C., 1974, Regulation of macromolecular synthesis, colony development, and specific growth rate of Achlya bisexualis during balanced growth, J. Gen. Microbiol. 80: 381.Google Scholar
  29. Groner, B., Hynes, N., Sippel, A. E., and Schutz, G., 1976, Induction of specific proteins in hyphae of Achlya ambisexualis by the steroid hormone antheridiol, Nature (London) 261: 599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gwynne, D. I., and Brandhorst, B. P., 1980, Antheridiol induced differentiation of Achlya in the absence of detectable synthesis of new protein, Exp. Mycol. 4: 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heftman, E., 1963, Biochemistry of plant steroids, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 14: 225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heftman, E., 1967, Steroid hormones in plants, Am. Perfumer Cosmet. 82: 47.Google Scholar
  33. Heftman, E., 1975, Steroid hormones in plants, Lloydia 38: 195.Google Scholar
  34. Hereford, L. M., and Rosbash, M., 1977, Number and distribution of polyadenylated RNA sequences in yeast, Cell 10: 453.Google Scholar
  35. Higgens, S. J., Burchell, J. M., Parker, M. G., and Herries, D. G., 1978, Effects of testosterone on sequence complexity of polyadenylated RNA from rat seminal vesicle, Eur. J. Biochem. 91: 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Horgen, P. A., 1977, Cytosol-hormone stimulation of transcription in the aquatic fungus Achlya ambisexualis, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 75: 10–22.Google Scholar
  37. Horgen, P. A., and Ball, S. F., 1974, Nuclear protein acetylation during hormone induced sexual differentiation in Achlya ambisexualis, Cytobios 10: 181.Google Scholar
  38. Horgen, P. A., Smith, R., Silver, J. C., and Craig, G., 1975, Hormonal stimulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis in Achlya ambisexualis, Can. J. Biochem. 53: 13–41.Google Scholar
  39. Horowitz, D. K., and Russell, P. J., 1974, Hormone-induced differentiation of antheridial branches in Achlya ambisexualis: Dependence on ribonucleic acid synthesis, Can. J. Microbiol. 20: 977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hudspeth, M. E. S., Timberlake, W. E., and Goldberg, R. B., 1977, DNA sequence organization in the water mold Achlya, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 74: 43–32.Google Scholar
  41. Huxley, J. S., 1935, Chemical regulation and the hormone concept, Biol. Rev. 10: 427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Johnson, T. W., Jr., 1956, The Genus Achlya: Morphology and Taxonomy,University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. Johnson, T. W., Jr., and Seymour, R. L., 1983, The Saprolegneaceae (in press).Google Scholar
  43. Kane, B. E., Jr., Reiskind, J. B., and Mullins, J. T., 1973, Hormonal control of sexual morphogenesis in Achlya: Dependence on protein and ribonucleic acid synthesis, Science 180: 1192.Google Scholar
  44. Karlson, P., and Löscher, M., 1959, “Pheromones”: A new term for a class of biologically active substances, Nature (London) 183: 55.Google Scholar
  45. Katzenellenbogen, B. S., and Gorski, J., 1972, Estrogen action in vitro, J. Biol. Chem. 247: 1299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Klein, R. M., and Cronquist, A., 1967, Significance of thallophyte characteristics, Q. Rev. Biol. 42:105. Kochert, G., 1978, Sexual pheromones in algae and fungi, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 29: 461.Google Scholar
  47. Krumlauf, R., and Marzluf, G. A., 1979, Characterization of the sequence complexity and organization of the Neurospora crassa genome, Biochemistry U.S.A. 18: 3705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lasure, L. L., and Griffin, D. H., 1974, Evidence for diploidy in Achlya bisexualis based on inheritance of cycloheximide resistance, Mycologia 66: 391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lasure, L. L., and Griffin, D. H., 1975, Inheritance of sex in Achlya bisexualis, Am. J. Bot. 62: 216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lauer, G. D., Roberts, T. M., and Klotz, L. C., 1977, Determination of the nuclear DNA content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and implications for the organization of DNA in yeast chromosomes, J. Mol. Biol. 114: 507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Law, D. J., Rozek, C. E., and Timberlake, W. E., 1978, Polyadenylate metabolism in Achlya ambisexualis, Exp. Mycol. 2: 198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lewin, B., 1980, Gene Expression 2, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  53. Lovett, J. S., and Leaver, C. J., 1969, High-molecular weight artifacts in RNA extracted from Blastocladiella at elevated temperatures, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 195: 319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Machlis, L., 1972, The coming of age of sex hormones in plants, Mycologia 64: 235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McMorris, T. C., 1978a, Sex hormones of the aquatic fungus Achlya, Lipids 13: 716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McMorris, T. C., 1978b, Antheridiol and the oogoniols, steroid hormones which control sexual reproduction in Achlya, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B: 243 284: 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McMorris, T. C., and Arunachalam, T., 1975, Synthesis of antheridiol(22,23–3H), J. Label. Compounds Radiopharm. 11: 377.Google Scholar
  58. McMorris, T. C., and Barksdale, A. W., 1967, Isolation of a sex hormone from the water mold Achlya bisexualis, Nature (London) 215: 320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McMorris, T. C., and Seshadri, R., 1971, Synthetic studies on antheridiol, Chem. Commun. 24: 1646.Google Scholar
  60. McMorris, T. C., and White, R. H., 1977, Biosynthesis of the oogoniols, steroidal sex hormones of Achlya: The role of fucosterol, Phytochemistry 16: 359.Google Scholar
  61. McMorris, T. C., Arunachalam, T., and Seshadri, R., 1972, A practical synthesis of antheridiol, Tetrahedron Lett. 26: 2673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McMorris, T. C., Seshadri, R., and Arunachalam, T., 1974, Synthesis of antheridiol and some observations on the chemistry of butenolides, J. Org. Chem. 39: 669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McMorris, T. C., Seshadri, R., Weihe, G. R., Arsenault, G. P., and Barksdale, A. W., 1975, Structures of oogoniol-1, -2, and -3, steroidal sex hormones of the water mold Achlya, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97: 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McMorris, T. C., Schow, S. R., and Weihe, G. R., 1978, Evidence for a C-29 hydroxyl group in oogoniol from C NMR spectra of model 3ß, 26- and 30, 29-dihydroxy stigmast-5-enes, Tetrahedron Lett. 335.Google Scholar
  65. Michalski, C. J., 1978, Protein synthesis during hormone stimulation in the aquatic fungus, Achlya, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 84: 417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mullins, J. T., 1968, Genetic and hormonal regulation of heterothallism in the water molds, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 84: 195.Google Scholar
  67. Mullins, J. T., 1973, Lateral branch formation and cellulase production in the water molds, Mycologza 65: 1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mullins, J. T. and Ellis, E. A., 1974, Sexual morphogenesis in Achlya: Ultrastructural basis for the hormonal induction of antheridial hyphae, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71: 1347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mullins, J. T., and Raper, J. R., 1965, Heterothallism in biflagellate aquatic fungi: Preliminary genetic analysis, Science 150: 1174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Musgrave, A., and Nieuwenhuis, D., 1975, Metabolism of radioactive antheridiol by Achlya species, Arch. Microbiol. 105: 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Notides, A., and Gorski, J., 1966, Estrogen-induced synthesis of a specific uterine protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 56: 230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. O’Farrell, P. H., 1975, High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 4007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Oka, T., and Schimke, R. T., 1969, Interaction of estrogen and progesterone in chick oviduct development, J. Cell Biol. 43: 123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. O’Malley, B. W., McGuire, W., Kohler, P., and Korenman, S., 1969, Studies on the mechanism of steroid hormone regulation of synthesis of specific proteins, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 25: 105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Preus, M. W., and McMorris, T. C., 1979, The configuration at C-24 in oogoniol (24R-3ß,11a,15)3,29-tetrahydroxy stigmast-5-en-7-one) and identification of 24(28)-dehydro-oogoniols as hormones in Achlya, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101: 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Raper, J. R., 1939a, Sexual hormones in Achlya. I. Indicative evidence for a hormonal coordinating mechanism, Am. J. Bot. 26: 639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Raper, J. R., 1939b, Role of hormones in the sexual reaction of heterothallic Achlyas, Science 89:321.Google Scholar
  78. Raper, J. R., 1940a, Sexuality in Achlya ambisexualis, Mycologia 32: 710.Google Scholar
  79. Raper, J. R., 1940b, Sexual hormones in Achlya. II. Distance reactions, conclusive evidence for a hormonal coordinating mechanism, Am. J. Bot. 27: 162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Raper, J. R., 1942a, Sexual hormones in Achlya. III. Hormone A and the initial male reaction, Am. J. Bot. 29: 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Raper, J. R., 19426, Sexual hormones in Achlya. V. Hormone A’, a male-secreted augmenter or activator of hormone A, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 28: 509.Google Scholar
  82. Raper, J. R., 1950a, Sexual hormones in Achlya. VI. The hormones of the A-complex, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 36: 524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Raper, J. R., 1950b, Sexual hormones in Achlya. VII. The hormonal mechanism in homothallic species, Bot. Gaz. 112: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Raper, J. R., 1951, Sexual hormones in Achlya, Am. Sci. 39: 110.Google Scholar
  85. Raper, J. R., 1952, Chemical regulation of sexual processes in thallophytes, Bot. Rev. 18:447.Google Scholar
  86. Raper, J. R., 1957, Hormones and sexuality in lower plants, Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 11: 143.Google Scholar
  87. Raper, J. R. and Haagen-Smit, A. J., 1942, Sexual hormones in Achlya. IV. Properties of hormone A of A. bisexualis, J. Biol. Chem. 143: 311.Google Scholar
  88. Rozek, C. E., and Timberlake, W. E., 1979a, Optimum conditions for synchronous oospore production in crosses of Achlya ambisexualis, Exp. Mycol. 3: 378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rozek, C. E., and Timberlake, W. E., 1979b, Restriction endonuclease mapping by crossed contact hybridization: The ribosomal RNA genes of Achlya ambisexualis, Nucleic Acids Res. 7: 15–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rozek, C. E., and Timberlake, W. E., 1980, Absence of evidence for changes in messenger RNA populations during steroid hormone-induced cell differentiation in Achlya, Exp. Mycol. 4: 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rozek, C. E., Orr, W. C., and Timberlake, W. E., 1978, Diversity and abundance of polyadenylated RNA from Achlya ambisexualis, Biochemistry U.S.A. 17: 716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Salvatore, M. A., Gray, F. A., and Hine, R. B., 1973, Enzymatically induced germination of oospores of Phytophthora megasperma, Phytopathology 63: 1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schwartz, R. J., Tsai, M. J., Tsai, S. Y., and O’Malley, B. W., 1975, Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. V. Changes in the number of RNA polymerase and initiation sites in chromatin, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 5175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Shaffer, R. L., 1975, The major groups of Basidiomycetes, Mycologia 67: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shaw, D. S., 1967, A method of obtaining single-oospore cultures of Phytophthora cactorum using live water snails, Phytopathology 57: 454.Google Scholar
  96. Silver, J. C., 1979, Chromatin organization in the oomycete Achlya ambisexualis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 561: 261.Google Scholar
  97. Silver, J. C., and Horgen, P. A., 1974, Hormonal regulation of presumptive mRNA in the fungus Achlya ambisexualis, Nature (London) 249: 252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sparrow, F. K., Jr., 1960, Aquatic Phycomycetes, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  99. Sparrow, F. K., Jr., 1976, The present status of classification of biflagellate fungi in: Recent Advances in Aquatic Mycology (E. B. Gareth Jones, ed.), pp. 213–222, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  100. St. John, T. P., and Davis, R. W., 1979, Isolation of galactose-inducible DNA sequences from Saccharomyces cerevisae by differential plague filter hybridization, Cell 16: 443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stranghellini, M. E., and Russell, J. D., 1973, Germination in vitro of Pythium aphanidermatum oospores, Phytopathology 63: 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sutherland, R. B., and Horgen, P. A., 1977, Effects of the steroid sex hormone, antheridiol, on the initiation of RNA synthesis in the simple eukaryote, Achlya ambisexualis, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 88–12.Google Scholar
  103. Tata, J. R., 1976, The expression of the vitellogenin gene, Cell 9: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Thomas, D. des S., and Mullins, J. T., 1967, Role of enzymatic wall-softening in plant morphogenesis: Hormonal induction in Achlya, Science 156: 84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Timberlake, W. E., 1976, Alterations in RNA and protein synthesis associated with steroid hormone-induced sexual morphogenesis in the water mold Achlya, Dev. Biol. 51: 202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Timberlake, W. E., 1978, Low repetitive DNA content in Aspergillus nidulans, Science 202: 773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Timberlake, W. E., 1980, Developmental gene regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, Del. Biol. 78: 497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Timberlake, W. E., and Griffin, D. H., 1973, Direct inhibition of the uptake of proline by cycloheximide, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 54: 216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Timberlake, W. E., and Griffin, D. H., 1974, Differential effects of cycloheximide and other inhibitors of protein synthesis on in vivo ribosomal RNA synthesis in Achlya bisexualis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 353: 248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Timberlake, W. E., McDowell, L., Cheney, J., and Griffin, D. H., 1973, Protein synthesis during the differentiation of sporangia in the water mold Achlya, J. Bacteriol. 116: 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Timberlake, W. E., Shumard, D. S., and Goldberg, R. B., 1977, Relationship between nuclear and polysomal RNA populations of Achlya: A simple eukaryotic system, Cell 10: 623.Google Scholar
  112. Tsai, M. J., Schwartz, R. J., Tsai, S. Y., and O’Malley, B. W., 1975, Effects of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. IV. Initiation of RNA synthesis on DNA and chromatin, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 51–65.Google Scholar
  113. van den Ende, H., 1976, Sex hormones in the water mould Achlya, in: Sexual Interactions in Plants, pp. 35–51, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Wallace, R. A., and Jared, D. W., 1968, Estrogen induces lipophosphoprotein in serum of male Xenopus laevis, Science 160: 91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Weihe, G. R., and McMorris, T. C., 1978, Stereoselective synthesis of 23-deoxyantheridiol, J. Org. Chem. 43: 3942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Win-Tin, and Dick, M. W., 1975, Cytology of oomycetes. Evidence for meiosis and multiple chromosome associations in Saprolegniaceae and Pythiaceae, with an introduction to the cytotaxonomy of Achlya and Pythium, Arch. Microbiol. 105: 283.Google Scholar
  117. Wong, L- J. C., and Marzluf, G. A., 1980, Sequence complexity and abundance classes of nuclear and polysomal polyadenylated RNA in Neurospora crassa, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 607: 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yamamoto, K. R., and Alberts, B. M., 1976, Steroid receptors: Elements for modulation of eukaryotic transcription, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 45: 721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zimmermann, C. R., Orr, W. C., Leclerc, R. F., Barnard, E. C., and Timberlake, W. E., 1980, Molecular cloning and selection of genes regulated in Aspergillus development, Cell 21: 709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • William E. Timberlake
    • 1
  • William C. Orr
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations