Commercial Trucks and Buses in Automated Highway Systems

  • Ioannis Kanellakopoulos
  • Masayoshi Tomizuka


As indicated throughout this volume, research and development on Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Automated Highway Systems (AHS) to date has been primarily focused on passenger vehicles,(1–3) while commercial heavy vehicles (CHVs) such as heavy-duty freight trucks (including tractor—trailer combinations) and commuter buses have been largely ignored. The obvious justification is that there are many more passenger vehicles on the road, and thus their automation will have the largest possible impact on the desired increase of highway traffic flow.


Time Headway Passenger Vehicle Lateral Control Tire Model Torque Converter 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. E. Fenton and R. J. Mayhan, Automated highway studies at The Ohio State University—An overview, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 40, 100–113 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Shladover, C. A. Desoer, J. K. Hedrick, M. Tomizuka, J. Walrand, W Zhang, D. Mcmahon, H. Peng, S. Sheikholeslam, and N. Mckeown, Automatic vehicle control developments in the PATH program, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 40, 114–130 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Peng and M. Tomizuka, Preview control for vehicle lateral guidance in highway automation, ASMEZ Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 115, 678–686 (1993).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Automobile Manufacturers Association, Motor Vehicle Facts & Figures `94 (Detroit, 1994).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tomorrow’s Truck Symposium Proceedings,SAE Proceedings 89–225, Detroit, 1989.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Highway statistics, 1993,49th ed. (Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1994).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. C. Mixulcix, The dynamics of tractor-semitrailer vehicles: The jackknifing problem, SAE Trans. 80, 710045 (1971).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. T. Bundorf, Directional control dynamics of automobile-travel trailer combinations, SAE Trans. 76, 670099, 667–680 (1967).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Dugoff and R. W. Murphy, The dynamic performance of articulated highway vehicles-A review of the state-of-the-art, SAE Trans. 80, 710223, 897–906 (1971).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Vlx, Lateral dynamics of commercial vehicle combinations: A literature survey, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 11, 305–324 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Vlk, Handling performance of truck-trailer vehicles: A state-of-the-art survey, Int. J. Veh. Des. 6, 323–361 (1985).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. M. Leucht, The directional dynamics of the commercial tractor-semitrailer vehicle during braking, SAE Trans. 79, 700371, 1146–1156 (1970).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    T Zimmermann, A. Fuchs, U. Franks, and B. Klingenberg, VECTOR-A vision enhanced/controlled truck for operational research, SAE Tech. Pap. Ser. No. 942284 (1994).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. M. Blosseville, F. Blondeel, and M. Graton, Towards an automated highway system applied to freight transport in France: First considerations, Proc. Joint University of California/PATH-France Workshop, Richmond, CA, Oct. 1995.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Favre, The position of a truck manufacturer regarding intelligent transportation systems advanced technologies, Proc. Joint University of California/PATH-France Workshop, Richmond, CA, Oct. 1995.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. D. Ervin, IVHS and the truckmaker: Identifying the need for research, UMTRI Final Report UMTRI-92–34 (Sept. 1992).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. A. Bishel, Dual-mode truck: Automated and manual operation, SAE Tech. Pap. See No. 931837 (Aug. 1993).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Yanakiev and I. Kanellakopoulos, Analysis, design and evaluation of AVCS for heavy duty vehicles: Phase 1 report, California PATH Working Paper UCB-ITS-PWP-95–12 (1995).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D. Yanakiev and I. Kanellakopoulos, Variable time headway for string stability of automated heavy-duty vehicles, Proc. 34th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, New Orleans, LA, 1995, pp. 4077–4081.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. Yanakiev and I. Kanellakopoulos, Speed tracking and vehicle follower control design for heavy-duty vehicles, Veh. Sys. Dyn. 25 (1996).Google Scholar
  21. C. Chen and M. Tomizuka, Dynamic modeling of articulated vehicles for automated highway systems, Proc. 1995 American Control Conference,Seattle, WA, pp. 653–657.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Chen and M. Tomizuka, Passivity-based nonlinear observer for lateral control of tractor-trailer vehicles in automated highway systems, to appear in the Proc. 13th IFAC World Congress, San Francisco, 1996.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Hendricks, Mean value modeling of large turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine, SAE Trans. No. 890564, 1–10 (1989).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. H. Horlock and D. E. Winterbone, The Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of Internal Combustion Engines ( Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986 ).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. J. Jennings, E N. Blumberg, and R. W. Amann, A dynamic simulation of Detroit Diesel electronic control system in heavy duty truck powertrains, SAE Trans. No. 891959, 5. 943–5. 966 (1986).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. P Jensen, A. F Kristensen, S. C. Sorenson, AND E. Hendricks, Mean value modeling of a small turbocharged diesel engine, SAE Trans. No. 910070, 1–13 (1991).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. D. Ledger, R. S. Benson, and N. D. Whitehouse, Dynamic modeling of a turbocharged diesel engine, SAE Trans. No. 710177, 1–12 (1971).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. E. Winterbone, C. Thiruarooran, and P. E. Wellstead, A wholly dynamic model of turbocharged diesel engine for transfer function evaluation, SAE Trans. No. 770124, 1–11 (1977).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Kao and J. J.Moskwa, Turbocharged diesel engine modeling for nonlinear engine control and state estimation, Proc. 1993 ASME Winter Annual Meeting DSC-Vol. 52, Symposium on Advanced Automotive Technologies: Advanced Engine Control Systems, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. Cho and J. K. Hedrick, Automotive power train modeling for control,ASMEJ. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 111, 568–576 (1989).Google Scholar
  31. D. H. Mcmahon, J. K. Hedrick, and S. E. Shladover, Vehicle modeling and control for automated highway system, Proc. 1990 American Control Conference,San Diego, CA, pp. 297–303.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Yanakiev and I. Kanellakopoulos, Engine and transmission modeling for heavy-duty vehicles, California PATH Technical Note 95–6 (1995).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. J. Kotwicki, Dynamic models for torque converter equipped vehicles, SAE Trans. No. 820393, 1595–1609 (1982).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. W. Sayers, Symbolic computer language for multi-body systems, J. Guidance, Control Dyn. 14 (6) (1991).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    C. C. Macadam, E S. Fancher, G. T Hu, and T D. Gillespie, A computerized model for simulating the braking and steering dynamics of trucks, tractor-trailers, doubles, and triples combinations-Users’ manual, phase 4, Highway Safety Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, Report No. UM-HSRI-80–58 (1980).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Spong and M. Vidyasagar, Robot Dynamics and Control ( Wiley, New York, 1989 ).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Murray, Z. Li, and S. Sastry,A Mathematical Introduction to Robotic Manipulation ( CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1994 ).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    D. T Greenwood, Principles of Dynamics, 2nd ed. ( Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1988 ).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    H. B. Pacuka and E. Bakker, The magic formula tire model, Proc. 1st International Colloquium on Tire Models for Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Deft, The Netherlands, 1991.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    P S. Fancher and Z. Bareket, Including roadway and tread factors in a semi-empirical model of truck tires, in Tire Models for Vehicle Dynamics Analysis (Oct. 1991).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    C. Chen and M. Tomizuka, Dynamic modeling of tractor-semitrailer vehicles for Automated Highway Systems, California PATH Working Paper UCB-ITS-PWP-95–8 (1995).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. E. Shladover, Longitudinal control of automated guideway transit vehicles within platoons, ASMEJ. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 100, 302–310 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. K. Hedrick, D. H. Mcmahon, V. K. Narendran, and D. Swaroop, Longitudinal vehicle controller design for IVHS systems, Proc. 1991 American Control Conference,Boston, pp. 3107–3112.Google Scholar
  44. S. Sheikholeslam and C. A. Desoer, Longitudinal control of a platoon of vehicles, Proc. 1990 American Control Conference,San Diego, CA, pp. 291–297.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. Varaiya, Smart cars on smart roads: Problems of control, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 38, 195–207 (1993).MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    W. L. Garrard, R. J. Caudill, A. L. Kornhauser, D. Mackinnon, and S. J. Brown, State-of-the-art of longitudinal control of automated guideway transit vehicles, High Speed Ground Transp. J. 12, 35–68 (1978).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    C. Chien and P Ioannou, Automatic vehicle following, Proc. 1992 American Control Conference,Chicago, pp. 1748–1752.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    P Fancher, Z. Bareket, and G. Johnson, Predictive analyses of the performance of a highway control system for heavy commercial vehicles, Proc. 13th IAVSD Symposium, supplement to Veh. Syst. Dyn. 23, 128–141 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    F Bottiger, H. D. Chemnitz, J. Doorman, U. Franke, T Zimmermann, and Z. Zomotor, Commercial vehicle and transit AHS analysis, Precursor Systems Analyses of Automated Highway Systems, Final Report, Vol. 6, Federal Highway Administration, Report FHWA-RD-95-XXX (1995).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    K. Gardels, Automatic car controls for electronic highways, General Motors Research Laboratory, General Motors Corp., Warren, MI, Report GMR-276 (June 1960).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    E. Dickmanns and A. Zapp, Autonomous high speed road vehicle guidance by computer vision, Proc. 10th IFAC World Congress, Munich, 1987.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. Malik, D. Koller, and T Luong, A machine vision based system for guiding lane-change maneuvers, California PATH Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-95–34 (1995).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    W. Zhanli et al.,An intelligent roadway reference system for vehicle lateral guidance/control, Proc. 1990 American Control Conference,San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    V. Utkin, Sliding Modes and Their Applications in Variable Structure Systems ( MIR Publishers, Moscow, 1978 ).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    H. Pham, J. K. Hedrick, and M. Tomizuka, Combined lateral and longitudinal control of vehicles, Proc. 1994 American Control Conference,Baltimore, pp. 1205–1206.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. Ackermann, J. Guldner, W. Sienel, and R. Steinhauser, Linear and nonlinear controller design for robust automatic steering, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 3, 132–143.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    J. Ackermann, Robust car steering by yaw rate control, Proc. 30th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Honolulu, HI, 1990.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    P. Hingwe and M. Tomizuka, Two alternative approaches to the design of lateral controllers for commuter buses based on sliding mode control, Advanced Automotive Technologies, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 1995.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    B. D. O. Anderson and J. B. Moore, Optimal Control—Linear Quadratic Methods ( Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990 ).MATHGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M. Krstic, I. Kanellakopoulos, and P. Kokotovic, Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design ( Wiley, New York, 1995 ).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    C. Chen and M. Tomizqka, Steering and independent braking control of tractor-semitrailer vehicles in Automated Highway Systems, Proc. 34th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, New Orleans, LA, 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis Kanellakopoulos
    • 1
  • Masayoshi Tomizuka
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations