Advertisement

Control and Sensor Requirements and Issues in AHS

  • Petros Ioannou
Chapter

Abstract

The current highway traffic system consists of the following basic elements and decision makers: the driver who controls the motion of the vehicle and makes decisions regarding the path of the vehicle, the route, destination, and so forth; the vehicle that obeys the commands of the driver whose on-board diagnostics often provide information to the driver about the health of the vehicle components; and the roadway or infrastructure that controls the flow of traffic using ramp metering, traffic lights, and roadway signs. These three basic elements interact and may influence each other considerably. For example, an inappropriate action by a driver of a single vehicle could have a dramatic effect on the performance of the overall traffic system. Similarly, a broken or low-performance vehicle could cause a large disturbance in the flow of traffic that may lead to heavy congestion. The roadway commands via road signs, ramp metering, and the like may equally have a negative effect on traffic flow if they are not the appropriate ones for the state of the traffic system the moment they are applied due to inaccurate sensing and/or incorrect control decision making. Inappropriate actions by any one of the three basic elements may not only lead to deterioration of performance and congestion but also to accidents and loss of human life.

Keywords

Traffic Flow Time Headway Comfortable Ride Lane Change Traffic System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Varaiya, Smart Carts on Smart Roads: Problems of Control, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 38 (2) (1993).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. R. Bishop and W. Stevens, Results of Precursor Systems Analyses of Automated Highway Systems, Proc. First World Congress on Applications of Transport Telematics and Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems, Paris, 1994, pp. 1959–1966.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Sun and P. Ioannou, A Handbook for Inter-Vehicle Spacing in Vehicle Following, California PATH Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-95–1, University of Southern California (1995).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. E. Siladover, Potential Freeway Capacity Effects of Advanced Vehicle Control Systems, Second International Conference on Applications of Advanced Technologies in Transportation Engineering, Minneapolis, 1991.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Ioannou and Z. Xu, Throttle and Brake Control Systems for Automatic Vehicle Following, IVHS J, 1 (4), 345–377 (1994).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Sheikholeslam and C. A. Desoer, Longitudinal Control of a Platoon of Vehicles, Proceedings of 1990 ACC, May 1990.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. C. Chien and P Ioannou, Automatic Vehicle-Following, Proc. 1992 American Control Conference, Chicago, pp. 1748–1752.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. E. Shladover et al.,Automatic Vehicle Control Developments in the PATH Program, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 40(1), 114–130 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. K. Hedrick, M. Tomlzuka, and P. Varaiya, Control Issues in Automated Highway Systems, IEEE Control Sys. 14 (6), 21–33 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Ioannou and C. C. Chien, Intelligent Cruise Control, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 42 (4), 657–672 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. S. Chang, J. K. Hedrick, W-B., Zhang, P. Varaiya, M. Tomizuka, and S. E. Shladover, Automated Highway System Experiments in the PATH Program, IVHS J., 1 (1), 63–87 (1993).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E Varaiya and S. E. Shladover, Sketch of an IVHS Systems Architecture, Proc. Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference, Dearborn, MI, Oct. 1991, pp. 909–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    W-B. Zhang, S. E. Shladover, R. W. Hall, and T Plocher, Functional Definition of Automated Highway Systems, TRB Paper 940988, 73rd Annual Meeting, Jan. 1994, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Hitchcock, Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System Safety: Multiple Collisions in AHS Systems, PATH Technical Report, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley (1994).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    U. Karaaslan, P Varaiya, and J. Walrand, Two Proposals to Improve Freeway Traffic Flow, PATH Report 90–6 (1990).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. C. Chien, Y. Zhang, A. Stotsky, and P. A. Ioannou, Roadway Traffic Controller Design for Automated Highway Systems, Proc. IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1994, pp. 2425–2430.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. B. Zhang and R. E. Parsons, An Intelligent Roadway Reference System for Vehicle Laser Guidance/Control, Proc. 1990 American Control Conference,San Diego, pp. 281–286.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Peng and M. Tomizuka, Preview Control for Vehicle Lateral Guidance in Highway Automation, ASME J. Dyn. Sys. Meas. Control 115, 679–686 (1993).MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    O. D. Altan, D. B. Craig, B. B. Litkouhi, and L. M. Oberdier, Lanetrak: A Vision-Based Automatic Vehicle Steering System, GMR, Research Publication GMR-7835 (1992).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. Pomerleau et al.,AVCS Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Proc. IVHS America 1994 Annual Meeting,Atlanta, Paper #94100.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Ulmer, Autonomous Automated Driving in Real Traffic, Proc. First World Congress on Applications of Transport Telematics and Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems, Paris, 1994, pp. 2118–2125.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Cugiani et al.,Millimetre-Wave Guard Rail Tracking System for Vehicle Lateral Control, Proc. IEEE Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference,Ottawa, Canada, 1993, pp. 521–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T Teramoto et al.,Study of Laser Radar, Proc. 12th International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles,1989, pp. 888–895.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Dickerson et al.,Lateral and Longitudinal Control Analysis, Activity Area D, Precursor Systems Analyses, Final Report, submitted to FHWA (1994).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. A. Pham, J. K. Hedrick, and M. Tomizuka, Combined Lateral and Longitudinal Control of Vehicles for Automated Highway Systems, Proc. 1994 American Control Conference,Baltimore.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Sheikholeslam and C. A. Desoer, Combined Longitudinal and Lateral Control of a Platoon of Vehicles, Proc. 1992 American Control Conference,Chicago, pp. 1763–1767.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    K. Ohnishi, J., Komura, and T. Ishibasxt, Development of Automatic Driving System on Rough Road-Realization of High Reliable Automatic Driving System, Proc. Intelligent Vehicles 92 Symposium,IEEE, Detroit.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    T Suzuki and A. Tachibana, A Fully Automated Intelligent Vehicle System Based on Computer Vision for Automated Highway System, Proc. First World Congress on Applications of Transport Telematics and Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems, Paris, 1994, pp. 1925–1932.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. Ulmer, Autonomous Automated Driving in Real Traffic, Proc. First World Congress on Applications of Transport Telematics and Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems, Paris, 1994, pp. 2118–2125.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Hsu, S. Sachs, F. Eskafi, and E Varaiya, The Design of Platoon Maneuvers for IVHS, Proc. 1991 American Control Conference, Boston, pp. 2545–2550.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    E Li et al.,An AVHS Link Layer Controller for Traffic Flow Stabilization, PATH Technical Note 95–7 (Nov. 1995).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. K. Boyd and M. P. Lukas, How to Run an Automated Transportation System, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybem. 2 (3), 131–141 (1972).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. G. Rule, The Dynamic Scheduling Approach to Automated Vehicle Macroscopic Control, Transportation Control Lab, Ohio State University, Columbus, Report EES 276A - 18 (Sept. 1974).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. G. Bender, An Overview of Systems Studies of Automated Highway Systems, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 40 (1), 82–99 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petros Ioannou
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Advanced Transportation TechnologiesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations