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Assessment of Heart Failure

  • James B. Young

Abstract

The clinical syndrome of heart failure may result from cardiac disease of many different etiologies. It reflects both the primary hemodynamic abnormalities caused by cardiac dysfunction and the consequences of multiple secondary compensatory systems (eg, vasoconstriction, neurohormonal activation, metabolic imbalance). Not surprisingly, the clinical manifestations of heart failure show a striking heterogeneity and, consequently, the clinical assessment of patients with heart failure is among the most challenging in medicine [1–3].

Keywords

Heart Failure Congestive Heart Failure Heart Failure Patient Brain Natriuretic Peptide Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • James B. Young

There are no affiliations available

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