Neuroendocrine Disorders

  • Earl A. Zimmerman

Abstract

The brain participates in the endocrine system through the hypothalamus, which contains the neurosecretory system that produces releasing hormones. Some of these hormones are secreted into the hypothalamohypophysial portal system to regulate anterior pituitary hormones and others into the general circulation in the posterior pituitary to control water conservation and breast milk ejection. The hypothalamus and its connections with the anterior and posterior pituitary gland comprise the hypothalamic-pituitary unit [1,2] (Fig. 3-2). The hypothalamus regulates additional vegetative and autonomic functions, including eating, drinking, and temperature. Lesions in or around the hypothalamic-pituitary unit cause various clinical syndromes in the endocrine system associated with decreased or increased hormonal secretions. Tumors in or around the hypothalamus also produce other vegetative symptoms and involve other neural structures nearby; the optic nerves and chiasm are particularly vulnerable. At times extension into the cavernous sinus causes eye movement difficulties. Occasionally obstruction of the third ventricle and its outflow result in hydrocephalus. Headache can be caused by traction on the pain-sensitive dura of the diaphragm of the sella.

Keywords

Cortisol Testosterone Dexamethasone Glucocorticoid Meningitis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Biller BMK, Daniels GH: Neuroendocrine Regulation and Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary and Hypothalamus. In Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Edited by Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Martin JB. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998: 1972–1999.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reichlin S: Neuroendocrine Control of Pituitary Function. In Clinical Endocrinology. Edited by Besser GM, Thorner MO. London: Mosby-Wolfe; 1994:1. 2–1. 16.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zimmerman EA, Cohen BH: Congenital Tumors. In Merritt’s Textbook of Neurology. Edited by Rowland LE. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1995: 375–384.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abrams GM, Zimmerman EA: Endocrine Diseases. In Merritt’s Neurology. Edited by Rowland LP. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000: 849–864.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Trainer PJ, Besser GM: Cushing’s Syndrome. In Clinical Endocrinology. Edited by Besser GM, Thorner MO. London: Mosby-Wolfe; 1994:8. 2–8. 10Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Antunes JL, Zimmerman EA: The hypothalamic magnocellular system of the Rhesus monkey: an immunocytochemical study. J Comp Neurol 1978, 181: 539–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nauta WJH, Haymaker W: Hypothalamic Nuclei and Fiber Connections. In The Hypothalamus. Edited by Haymaker W, Anderson E, Nauta WJH. Springfield IL: Charles C. Thomas; 1969: 136–209.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zimmerman EA, Hou-Yu A, Nilaver G, Silverman A-J: Anatomy of Pituitary and Extrapituitary Vasopressin Neurosecretory Systems. In The Neurohypophysis. Edited by Reichlin S. New York: Plenum; 1984: 5–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maghnic M, Cosi G, Genovese E, et al.: Central diabetes insipidus in children and young adults. N Engl J Med 2000, 343:998–1007.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Molitch ME, Elton RL, Blackwell RE, et al.: Bromocriptine as primary therapy for prolactin-secreting macroadenomas: results of a prospective multicenter study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985, 60:698–705.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Earl A. Zimmerman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations