Pain and Discomfort Avoidance
Hedonism, the doctrine that human action can be attributed primarily to the desire to gain pleasure and avoid pain and discomfort, dates back to ancient times. The writings of Socrates’s pupil Aristippos (ca. 400 b.c.) were among the earliest to refer to this theory (Boring, 1950, p. 704). More recently, in both Darwin’s and Freud’s theories, hedonism was one of the basic postulates. Such a view was prevalent in many twentieth-century behavioristic theories of acquired drives, especially in animal models (Hilgard, 1987).
KeywordsMajor Depressive Disorder Activity Restriction Pain Perception McGill Pain Questionnaire Bodily Symptom
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