Interrelations Between Biological Rhythms and Clocks

  • F. A. BrownJr.
Part of the Advances in experimental medicine and biology book series (AEMB, volume 108)


There is currently no evidence indicating that the biological rhythms that one can readily observe and the biological clocks that time them are one and the same. The rhythms are labile in form and readily modified by numerous environmental factors. Their amplitudes may be experimentally modified and thereafter persist at the same amplitude in constancy of light and temperature. They may even be abolished, and yet their timing mechanism may continue to operate, prepared to accept and time again a restored rhythm. The clocks of life never cease to operate, but always continue their inexorable activities, all the while generating periods that are essentially, even probably completely, independent of temperature, of all drugs or other chemicals, and even of genome. Independence of genome is fully implied by the omnipresence of the clock system with all its well-known properties in the whole spectrum of plants, animals, and protists. Only the prokaryotes questionably possess typical circaperiodisms with the usual rhythm properties although the investigations of H. Bortels (1959), in Germany, long ago gave clear evidence of continuous reaction of bacteria in constant obvious factors to atmospheric factors reflecting pervasive weather parameters. These last would also contain all these rhythmic fluctuations within them reflecting the atmospheric solar-day cycles and their modulations by the lunar and annual cycles.


Circadian Rhythm Biological Rhythm Biological Clock Fiddler Crab Monthly Cycle 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. A. BrownJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

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