Advertisement

Advances in Nonradiative Processes in Semiconductors

  • R. G. Ulbrich
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 249)

Abstract

The concepts of elementary excitations, electronic band-structure, and scattering mechanisms of electrons and holes in semiconductors are reviewed at an elementary level. Several aspects of the relaxation process of nonequilibrium charge carriers in the direct gap semiconductor gallium arsenide are discussed: electron-electron and electron-phonon coupling rates, and their competition with radiative interband transitions are summarized. Two specific experiments are discussed in detail: “hot electron” luminescence under conditions of cw excitation above the band gap and nonlinear, transient “pump-probe” optical spectra excited with ultrashort (70 fs) laser pulses.

Keywords

Acoustic Phonon Elementary Excitation Nonequilibrium Charge Carrier Intervalley Scattering Envelope Wave Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Second Edition, ( Wiley, New York, 1981 ) Ch. 1.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.J. Kelly and C. Weisbuch, The Physics and Fabrication of Microstructures and Microdevices (Springer Proceedings in Physics Vol. 13, Berlin, 1986 ) Part II.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. Wooten, Optical Properties of Solids (Academic Press, New York, 1972) Ch.5.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Bassani and G. Pastori Parravicini, Electronic States and Optical Transitions in Solids ( Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Nakajima, Y. Toyozawa and R. Abe, The Physics of Elementary Excitations (Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences, Vol.12, Berlin, 1980) Ch.2.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Seitz, The Modern Theory of Solids ( McGraw Hill, New York, 1940 ).MATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.B. Bachelet, D.R. Hamann, and M. Schlüter, Phys. Rev. B26, 4199 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.C. Phillips, Bonds and Bands in Semiconductors (Academic Press, New York, 1973) Ch.5.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.L. Cohen and J.R. Chelikowski, Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Semiconductors (Springer, Berlin, 1988 ) Ch.l.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Local Density Approximations in Quantum Chemistry and Solid State Physics (eds. J.P. Dahl and J. Avery, Plenum Press, 1985 ).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.R.L. Zucca, J.P. Walter, Y.R. Shen and M.L. Cohen, Solid State Commun. 8, 627 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    U. Roessler, Solid State Commun. 49, 943 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. Hanke, in: Advances in Solid State Physics Vol. 19, (ed. J. Treusch, Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1978 ) p. 43.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D.J. Chadi, Proc. 19th Int. Conf. Semiconductors, Warsaw, 1988 (ed. W. Zawadzki, Inst. of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 1988 ) p. 3.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Born and R. Oppenheimer, Ann. d. Physik 34, 457 (1927).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    See the article by B. DiBartolo in this book.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Debye and E. Hueckel, Phys. Z. 24, 185 (1923); ibid. 305.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.M. Platzman and P.A. Wolff, Waves and Interactions in Solid State Plasmas (Academic Press, New York, 1973) Ch.1.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Benz and R. Conradt, Phys. Rev. B16, 843 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.B. Laks, G.F. Newmark, A. Hangleiter and S.T. Pantelides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1229 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Appel and A.W. Overhauser, Phys. Rev. B26, 507 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R.P. Huebener, Rep. Prog. Phys. 47, 175 (1984).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    B.K. Ridley, Quantum Processes in Semiconductors (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1982) ch.3.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R.P. Feynman, Statistical Mechanics (W.A.Benjamin, Reading, 1972) Ch.8.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    See e.g. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Hot Carriers in Semiconductors, Boston, 1987 (Pergamon Press, New York, 1988), Ch.4.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Bardeen and W. Shockley, Phys. Rev. 80, 72 (1950).MathSciNetADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sadao Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G.S. Cargill, III, J. Angilello, and K.L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1748 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Fröhlich: Polarons and Excitons (ed. C.G. Kuper and G.D. Whitfield, Oliver and Boyd, 1963 ) p. 1.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.D. Wiley, in: Semiconductors and Semimetals Vol.10, (ed. R.K. Willardson abd A.C. Beer, Academic Press, New York, 1975) Ch.2; D.Rode, ibid., Ch. 1.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ref.5, Ch.7.5.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    C.M.Wolfe, G.E. Stillman, and W.T. Lindley, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3088 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Physics of Quantum Electron Devices (ed. F. Capasso, Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics Vol.28, 1990 ).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    See M. Heiblum, Ref.25, p.617; ibid. J. Hayes, p.619.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    R.J. Elliot, in: Polarons and Excitons (ed. C.G.Kuper and G.D. Whitfield, Oliver and Boyd, 1963 ) p. 269.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J.Dow, in: New Developments in the Optical Properties of Solids (ed. B. Seraphin, North Holland, 1988) Ch.2.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Stahl and I. Balslev, Electrodynamics of the Semiconductor Band Edge (Springer, 1986) Ch.4.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover Publications, New York, 1971) Ch.7.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    P. Lawaetz, Phys. Rev. B4, 3760 (1971).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    G. Fasol and H.P. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B33, 2953 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    R.G. Ulbrich, J. Kash and J. Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 949 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    G.A. Thomas, E.I. Blount, and M. Capizzi, Phys. Rev. B19, 702 (1979).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Abstreiter, M. Cardona, A. Pinczuk, in: Topics in Applied Physics Vol. 54 ( Springer, Berlin, 1984 ) p. 5.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Jaros, Phys. Rev. B16, 3694 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    W. Kohn, in: Solid State Physics Vol. 5 ( Academic Press, New York, 1957 ) p. 257.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. Baldereschi and N.O. Lipari, Phys. Rev. B8, 2697 (1973); S.T. Pantelides, Rev. Mod. Phys. 50 (1978).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    C.H. Henry and D.V. Lang, Phys. Rev. B15, 989 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    R.L. Fork, C.H. Brito Cruz, P.C. Becker, C.V. Shank, Opt. Lett. 12, 483 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    D.R. Grischkowski, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 82, 582 (1985) and references therein.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    H.J. Eichler, P. Günter, D.W. Pohl. Laser-induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer, Berlin, 1986) Ch.2.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    W.H. Knox, D.S. Chemla, G. Livescu, J.E. Cunningham, and J.E. Henry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1290 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    P.C. Becker, H.L. Fragnito, C.H. Brito Cruz, R.L. Fork, J.E. Cunningham, J.E. Henry, and C.V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ref. 24, Ch.2.7.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    W. Schaefer, in: Advances in Solid State Physics Vol. 28 (ed. U. Roessler, Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1988 ) p. 63.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    G. Boehne, T. Sure, R.G. Ulbrich and W. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. B41, 1990.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    See Ref.3, Ch.7.2.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. Kuhn and G. Mahler, Phys. Rev. B39, 1194 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Ulbrich
    • 1
  1. 1.4. Physikalisches InstitutUniversität GöttingenGöttingenFed. Rep. Germany

Personalised recommendations