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A Chemical Approach for Elucidating the Molecular Interaction of Host-Specific AK-Toxin with Japanese Pear

  • Hisashi Miyagawa
  • Masakazu Okada
  • Ippei Uemura
  • Bunta Watanabe
  • Tamio Ueno
Chapter

Abstract

Among the millions of microorganisms living on earth, only a limited number are pathogenic. The specificity in the establishment of plant diseases represents an issue which has long been of great concern. One of the known factors which play a role in the disease-specificity is the production of host-specific toxins (HSTs). HSTs are pathogen-generated secondary metabolites which are highly selective in their toxicity against host plants. Historically, the story of HST originates from investigation of the pathology of the black spot disease of Japanese pear. This type of pear is a common Japanese fruit that has a long history of cultivation. As a result, a wide variety of cultivars has developed. Among these, the Nijisseiki cultivar is the most famous, with its crisp and juicy taste. This cultivar is thought to have occurred as a result of mutation of a native variety, and was discovered around the end of the 19th century by chance in Chiba prefecture of this country. Its unprecedented good taste attracted a great deal of attention at that time, and the cultivar was named Nijisseiki, which means “the 20th century” in Japanese, in the hope that this cultivar could be grown for many years in the future. However, the Nijisseiki cultivar was found to be highly susceptible to black spot disease, which is caused by a phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria kikuchiana. The fungus was later renamed Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, because there is no apparent difference, except in terms of its pathogenicity, between the pathogen and other A. alternata fungi Black spot disease represents a significant problem in the cultivation of this cultivar, and a considerable effort is expended in protecting it, even today.

Keywords

Acid Moiety Alternaria Alternata Plasma Membrane Fraction Japanese Pear Carboxylic Acid Moiety 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hisashi Miyagawa
    • 1
  • Masakazu Okada
    • 1
  • Ippei Uemura
    • 1
  • Bunta Watanabe
    • 1
  • Tamio Ueno
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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