Advertisement

Linkage Analysis Using Somatic Cell Hybrids

  • Frank H. Ruddle
Part of the Advances in Human Genetics book series (AHUG, volume 3)

Abstract

It is my aim in this article to review current progress in somatic cell genetics. Somatic cell genetics, although a relatively new discipline, has already split into several different areas of investigation. For example, somatic cell hybrids are being used to study problems of cytodifferentiation,41 mitotic regulation,82,83,168,189 and activation of latent viruses.99,103,234 These subjects, while related to somatic cell genetics, will not directly concern us here. In this article, I shall focus on the utilization of somatic cell populations for the purpose of establishing the linkage relationships of genes to other genes and genes to chromosomes in higher eukaryotic organisms—especially man.

Keywords

Linkage Analysis Thymidine Kinase Newcastle Disease Virus Somatic Cell Hybrid Parental Genome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Arrighi, F. E., and T. C. Hsu, Localization of heterochromatin in human chromosomes, Cytogenetics 10: 81 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arrighi, F. E., T. C. Hsu, P. P. Saunders, and G. F. Saunders, Localization of repetitive DNA in the chromosomes of Microtus agrestis by means of in situ hybridization, Chromosoma (Berl.) 32: 224 (1970).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arrighi, F. E., P. P. Saunders, G. F. Saunders, and T. C. Hsu, Distribution of repetitious DNA in human chromosomes, Experientia (in press).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Augusti-Tocco, G., and G. Sato, Establishment of functional clonal lines of neurons from mouse neuroblastoma, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 64: 311 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bakay, B. and W. L. Nyhan, The separation of adenine and hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferases isoenzymes by disc gel electrophoresis, Biochem. Genet.Google Scholar
  6. 5: 81 (1971).Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Barski, G., S. Sorieul, and F. Cornefert, Production dans des cultures in vitro de deux souches cellulaires en association, de cellules de caractère “hybride”, C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris 251: 1825 (1960).Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Billardon, C., N. Van Cong, J. Y. Picard, J. Feingold, and J. Frézal, Confirmation d’une liaison entre les locus de la lactico-déshydrogénase B et de la peptidase B, C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris 272: 658 (1971).Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    Blume, A., F. Gilbert, S. Wilson, J. Farber, R. Rosenberg, and M. Nirenberg, Regulation of acetylcholinesterase in neuroblastoma cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 67: 786 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    Bodmer, W. (unpublished results).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Boone, C. M., Enzyme expression and linkage studies in somatic cell hybrids between mouse and human, Ph. D. Thesis, Yale University (1969).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Boone, C. M., T. R. Chen, and F. H. Ruddle, Assignment of LDH-A locus in man to chromosome C-11 using somatic cell hybrids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 69: 510 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    Boone, C. M., and F. H. Ruddle, Interspecific hybridization between human and mouse somatic cells: Enzyme and linkage studies, Biochem. Genet. 3: 119 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Brewer, G. J., “Introduction to Isozyme Techniques,” Academic Press, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Carlson, P. S., Production of auxotrophic mutants in ferns, Genet. Res. 14: 1 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Carlson, P. Induction and isolation of auxotrophic mutants in somatic cell cultures of Nicotiana tabocum, Science 168: 487 (1970).Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Carr, D. H., Chromosomal errors and development, Am. J. Obst. Gynec. 104: 327 (1969).Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Carr, D. H., Chromosomal abnormalities in clinical medicine, Progr. Med. Genet Google Scholar
  19. 6: 1 (1969).Google Scholar
  20. 18.
    Caspersson, T., G. Gahrton, J. Lindsten, and L. Zech, Identification of the Philadelphia chromosome as a number 22 by quinacrine mustard, Exptl. Cell Res. 63: 238 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 19.
    Caspersson, T., M. Hulten, J. Lindsten, and L. Zech, Distinction between extra G-like chromosomes by QM fluorescence analysis. Exptl. Cell Res. 63: 240 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 20.
    Caspersson, T., J. Lindsten, and L. Zech, Identification of the abnormal B group chromosomes in the “cri du chat” syndrome by QM-fluorescence, Exptl. Cell Res. 61: 475 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 21.
    Caspersson, T., E. Simonsson, and L. Zech, UV-absorption and QM-fluorescence patterns for chromosome aberration study in Chinese hamster, Exptl. Cell Res. 63: 243 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 22.
    Caspersson, T., L. Zech, and C. Johansson, Differential binding of alkylating fluorochromes in human chromosomes, Exptl. Cell Res. 60: 315 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 23.
    Caspersson, T., L. Zech, and C. Johansson, Quinacrine mustard-fluorescence of human chromosomes 4, 5 and X, Exptl. Cell Res. 61: 474 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 24.
    Caspersson, T., L. Zech, C. Johansson, J. Lindsten, and M. Hulten, Fluorescent staining of heteropycnotic chromosome regions in human interphase nuclei, Exptl. Cell Res. 61: 472 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 25.
    Caspersson, T., L. Zech, C. Johansson, and E. J. Modest, Identification of human chromosomes by DNA-binding fluorescent agent, Chromosoma (Berl.) 30: 215 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 26.
    Caspersson, T., L. Zech, E. J. Modest, G. E. Foley, U. Wagh, and E. Simonsson, Chemical differentiation with fluorescent alkylating agents in Vicia faba metaphase chromosomes, Exptl. Cell Res. 58: 128 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 27.
    Caspersson, T., L. Zech, E. J. Modest, G. E. Foley, U. Wagh, and E. Simonsson, DNA-binding fluorochromes for the study of the organization of the metaphase nucleus, Exptl. Cell Res. 58: 141 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    Cassingena, R., C. Chany, M. Vignal, H. Suarez, S. Estrade, and P. Lazar, Use of monkey-mouse hybrid cells for the study of the cellular regulation of interferon production and action, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 68: 580 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 29.
    Chapman, V. M., and F. H. Ruddle, Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) genetics in the mouse: Polymorphism of GOT-1, Biochem. Genet. 4: 259 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 30.
    Chen, Shi-Hon, L. A. Malcolm, A. Yoshida, and E. R. Giblett, Phosphoglycerate kinase: An X-linked polymorphism in man, Am. J. of Hum. Gen. 23: 87 (1971).Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Chen, T. R., and F. H. Ruddle, Karyotype analysis utilizing differentially stained constitutive heterochromatin of human and murine chromosomes, Chromosoma (in press).Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    Chu, E. H. Y., P. Brimer, K. B. Jacobson, and E. V. Merriam, Mammalian Cell Genetics I, Selection and characterization of mutations auxotrophic for L-glutamine or resistant to 8-azaguanine in Chinese hamster cells in vitro, Genetics 62: 359 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    Chu, E. H. Y., and H. V. Mailing, Mammalian Cell Genetics, II. Chemical induction of specific locus mutations in Chinese hamster cells in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 61: 1306 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 34.
    Cocks, G. T., and A. C. Wilson, Immunological detection of single amino acid substitution in alkaline phosphatase, Science 164: 188 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 35.
    Colowick, S. P., and N. O. Kaplan, “Methods in Enzymology.” Academic Press, New York (1955), p. 473–478.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    Colwin, L. H., and A. L. Colwin, Role of the gamete membranes in fertilization in Saccoglossus kowalevskii (enteropneusta). II. Zygote formation by gamete membrane fusion. J. Cell Biol. 19: 501 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 37.
    Coombs, R. R. A., J. Marks, and D. Bedford, Specific mixed agglutination: mixed erythrocyte-platelet antiglobulin reaction for the detection of platelet antibodies, Br. J. Haemat. 2: 84 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 38.
    Coon, H. G., and M. C. Weiss; A quantitative comparison of formation of spontaneous and virus-produced viable hybrids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 62: 852 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 39.
    Davidson, R. (personal communication).Google Scholar
  42. 40.
    Davidson, R., Regulation of melanin synthesis in mammalian cells, as studied by somatic hybridization. III. A method for increasing the frequency of cell fusion, Exp. Cell Res. 55: 424 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 41.
    Davidson, R. L., Regulation of gene expression in somatic cell hybrids: A review. In vitro 6: 411 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 42.
    Davidson, R., and B. Ephrussi, Factors influencing the “effective mating rate” of mammalian cells, Exptl. Cell Res. 61: 222 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 43.
    Davidson, R. G., J. A. Cortner, M. C. Rattazzi, F. H. Ruddle, and H. A. Lubs, Genetic polymorphisms of human mitochondrial glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, Science 169: 391 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 44.
    DeLorenzo, R. J., and F. H. Ruddle, Genetic control of two electrophoretic variants of glucosephosphate isomerase in the mouse (Mus musculus), Biochem. Genet. 3: 151 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 45.
    DeLorenzo, R. J., and F. H. Ruddle, Glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase genetics in Mus musculus: Linkage, polymorphism, and phenotypes of the Got-2 and Got-1 loci, Biochem. Genet. 4: 259 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 46.
    Der Kaloustian, V. M., R. Byrne, W. J. Young, and B. Childs, An electrophoretic method for detecting hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase variants, Biochem. Genet. 3: 299 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 47. Drets, M. E., and M. W. Shaw, Specific banding patterns of human chromosomes, submitted to Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Edwards, E. H., D. A. Hopkinson, H. Harris, Inherited variants in human nucleoside phosphorylase, Ann. Hum. Gen. Lond. 34: 347 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    Engel, E., B. J. McGee, and H. Harris, Recombination and segregation in somatic cell hybrids, Nature (London) 223: 152 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    Ephrussi, B., L. J. Scaletta, M. A. Stenchever, and M. C. Yoshida. Hybridization of somatic cells in vitro, Sympt. Intern. Soc. Cell Biol. 3: 13 (1964).Google Scholar
  53. 51.
    Ephrussi, B., and S. Sorieul, Nouvelles observations sur l’hybridation in vitro de cellules de souris, C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris 254: 181 (1961).Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Ephrussi, B., and M. C. Weiss, Interspecific hybridization of somatic cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 53: 1040 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Ephrussi, B., and M. C. Weiss, Regulation of the cell cycle in mammalian cells: inferences and speculations based on observations of interspecific somatic hybrids. In “Control Mechanisms in Developmental Processes” (M. Locke, ed.), Society for Developmental Biology Symposium No. 26, Devi. Biol. Suppl. I. p. 136 (1967).Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Epstein, C. J., and A. N. Schechter, An approach to the problem of conformational isozymes, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 151: 85 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 55.
    Fa-Ten, K., and T. T. Puck, Genetics of somatic mammalian cells. IV. Properties of Chinese hamster cell mutants with respect to the requirement for proline, Genetics 55: 513 (1967).Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Feinstein, R. N., J. E. Seaholm, J. B. Howard, and W. L. Russell, Acatalasemic mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 52: 661 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    Friend, C., W. Scher, J. G. Holland, and T. Sato, Hemoglobin synthesis in murine virus-induced leukemic cells in vitro: Stimulation of erythroid differentiation by dimethylsulfoxide, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 68: 378 (1971).Google Scholar
  60. 58.
    Gall, J. G., and M. L. Pardue, Formation and detection of RNA-DNA hybrid molecules in cytological preparations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 63: 378 (1969).Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Gall, J. G., and M. L. Pardue, Nucleic acid hybridization in cytological preparations, in “Methods in Enzymology” (K. Moldave and L. Grossman, eds.), Academic Press, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  62. 60.
    German, J. Cytological evidence for crossing-over in vitro in human lymphoid cells, Science 144: 298 (1964).Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    Green, H., Prospects for the chromosomal localization of human genes in human-mouse somatic cell hybrids, in “Heterospecific Genome Interaction,” The Wistar Institute Symposium Monograph No. 9, (1969), pp. 51–59.Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    Hall, W. T., W. F. Andresen, K. K. Sanford, and V. Evans. Virus particles and murine leukemia virus complement-fixing antigens in neoplastic and non-neoplastic cell lines, Science 156: 85 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Halperin, W., Embryos from somatic plant cells, in “Control Mechanism in the Expression of Cellular Phenotypes,” (H. A. Padykula, ed.), Academic Press, London (1970), pp. 169–191.Google Scholar
  66. 64.
    Harris, H., Enzyme polymorphisms in man, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. B, 164: 298 (1966).Google Scholar
  67. 65.
    Harris, H., “Cell Fusion,” Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1970).Google Scholar
  68. 66.
    Harris, H., O. J. Miller, G. Klein, P. Worst, and T. Tachibana, Suppression of malignancy by cell fusion. Nature 223: 363 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Harris, H., E. Sidebottom, D. M. Grace, and M. E. Bramwell, The expression of genetic information: A study with hybrid animal cells, J. Cell Sci. 4: 499 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 68.
    Harris, H., and J. F. Watkins, Hybrid cells derived from mouse and man: Artificial heterokaryons of mammalian cells from different species, Nature, Lond. 205: 640 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Harris, A., J. Dennis, and M. J. Dennis, Acetylcholine sensitivity and distribution on mouse neuroblastoma cells, Science, 167: 1253 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 70.
    Harris, M., “Cell Culture and Somatic Variation,” Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  73. 71.
    Harris, M., Polyploid series of mammalian cells, Exptl. Cell Res. 66: 1 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 72.
    Harris, M., Mutation rates in cells at different ploidy levels, J. Cell Physiol. (in press).Google Scholar
  75. 73.
    Harris, M., and F. H. Ruddle, Growth and chromosome studies on drug resistant lines of cells in tissue culture, in “Cell Physiology of Neoplasia,” University of Texas Press, Austin, 524–546 (1960).Google Scholar
  76. 74.
    Hayflick, L., and P. S. Moorhead, The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains, Exptl. Cell Res. 25: 585 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 75.
    Henderson, N. S., Isozymes of isocitrate dehydrogenase: Subunit structure and intracellular location, J. Exp. Zool. 158: 263 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    Henderson, N. S., Isozymes and genetic control of NADP-malate dehydrogenase in mice, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 117: 28 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 77.
    Hildebrandt, A. C., Growth and differentiation of plant cell cultures, in “Control Mechanisms in the Expression of Cellular Phenotypes (H. A. Padykula, ed.), Academic Press, London (1970), pp. 147–167.Google Scholar
  80. 78.
    Hosaka, Y., and Y. Koshi, Electron microscopic study of cell fusion by HVJ virions, Virology 34: 419 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 79.
    Hubby, J. L., and R. C. Lewontin, A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. I. The number of alleles at different loci in Drosophila pseudoobscura, Genetics 54: 577 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 80.
    Jakob, H., and F. Ruiz, Preferential loss of kangaroo chromosomes in hybrids between Chinese hamster and kangaroo-rat somatic cells. Exptl. Cell Res. 62: 310 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    Jami, J., S. Grandchamp, and B. Ephrussi, Sur le comportement caryologique des hybrides cellulaires homme x souris, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 272: 323 (1971).Google Scholar
  84. 82.
    Johnson, R. T., and P. N. Rao, Mammalian cell fusion: Induction of premature chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei, Nature 226: 717 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 83.
    Johnson, R. T., and P. N. Rao, Nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions in the achievement of nuclear synchrony in DNA synthesis and mitosis in multinucleate cells, Biol. Rev. 46: 97 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    Jones, K. W., Chromosomal and nuclear location of mouse satellite DNA in individual cells, Nature 225: 912 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Kahan, B. W., and B. Ephrussi, Developmental potentialities of clonal in vitro cultures of mouse testicular teratoma, J. Nat. Canc. Inst. 44: 1015 (1970).Google Scholar
  88. 86.
    Kaighn, M. E., Synthesis of serum proteins by human liver clones, in vitro 6: 371 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 87.
    Kao, F. T., L. Chasm, and T. T. Puck, Complementation analysis of glycine-requiring mutants, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 64: 1284 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 88.
    Kao, F. T., R. T. Johnson, and T. T. Puck, Complementation analysis on virus-fused Chinese hamster cells with nutritional markers, Science 164: 312 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    Kao, F. T., and T. T. Puck, Genetics of somatic mammalian cells, VII. Induction and isolation of nutritional mutants in Chinese hamster cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 60: 1275 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Kao, F. T., and T. T. Puck, Quantitation of mutagenesis by physical and chemical agents, J. Cell. Physiol. 74: 245 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 91.
    Kao, F. T., and T. T. Puck, Linkage studies with human-Chinese hamster cell hybrids, Nature 228: 329 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    Kelley, W. N., R. I. Levy, F. M. Rosenbloom, J. F. Henderson, and J. E. Seegmiller, Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: a previously undescribed genetic defect in man, J. Clin. Investig. 47: 22 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    Kit, S., D. R. Dubbs, J. L. Piekarski, and T. C. Hsu, Deletion of thymidine kinase activity from L-cells resistant to bromodeoxyuridine, Exptl. Cell Res. 31: 297 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 94.
    Klebe, R. J. Genetic mapping of a human regulator gene, Ph. D. Thesis, Yale University (1970).Google Scholar
  97. 95.
    Klebe, R. J., T. R. Chen, and F. H. Ruddle, Controlled production of proliferating somatic cell hybrids. J. Cell Biol. 45: 74 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    Klebe, R. J., and F. H. Ruddle, Neuroblastoma: Cell culture analysis of a differentiating stem cell system. J. Cell Biol. 43: 69A (1969).Google Scholar
  99. 97.
    Klein, D., D. L. Merchant, J. Klein, and D. C. Shreffler, Persistence of H-2 and some non-H-2 antigens on long-term-cultured mouse cell lines, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 44: 1149 (1970).Google Scholar
  100. 98.
    Klein, R., and G. Klein, Studies on the mechanism of isoantigenic variant formation in heterozygous mouse tumors. III. Behavior of H-2 antigens D and K when located in the trans position, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 32: 569 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Knowles, B. B. F. C. Jensen, Z. Steplewski, and H. Koprowski, Rescue of infectious SV40 transformed cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 61: 42 (1968).Google Scholar
  102. 100.
    Kohn, A., Polykaryocytosis induced by Newcastle disease virus in monolayers of animal cells, Virology 26: 228 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 101.
    Kohn, A., and C. Klibansky, Studies on the inactivation of cell-fusing property of Newcastle disease virus by phospholipase A. Virology 31: 385 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 102.
    Koprowski, H., personal communication.Google Scholar
  105. 103.
    Koprowski, H., F. C. Jensen, and Z. Steplewski, Activation of production of infectious tumor virus SV40 in heterokaryon cultures, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 58: 127 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 104.
    Krooth, R. S., G. A. Darlington, and A. Velazquez, The genetics of cultured mammalian cells, Ann. Rev. Genet. 2: 141 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    Kusano, T., C. Long, and H. Green, A new reduced human-mouse somatic cell hybrid containing the human gene for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 68: 82 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 106.
    Land, V. J., and M. N. Goldstein, Differentiation of mouse C1300 and human NJB neuroblastomas, In Vitro 6: 402 (1971).Google Scholar
  109. 107.
    Lederberg, J., Genetic approaches to somatic cell variation: summary comment, J. Cell. Physiol. 52: 383 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 108.
    Lesch, M., and W. Nyham, A familial disorder of uric acid metabolism and central nervous system function, Amer. J. Med. 36: 561 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 109.
    Lewis, W. H. P., and H. Harris, Human red cell peptidases, Nature 215: 351 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Lewis, W. H. P., and H. Harris, Peptidase D (prolidase) variants in man, Ann. Hum. Genet., Lond. 32: 317 (1969).Google Scholar
  113. 111.
    Lewis, W. H. P., and G. M. Truslove, Electrophoretic heterogeneity of mouse erythrocyte peptidases. Biochem. Genet. 3: 493 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Lewontin, R. C., and J. L. Hubby, A molecular approach to the study of genetic heterozygosity in natural populations. II. Amount of variation and degree of heterozygosity in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura, Genetics 54: 595 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    Lieberman, I. and P. Ove, Enzyme studies with mutant mammalian cells, J. Biol. Chem. 235: 1765 (1960).Google Scholar
  116. 114.
    Littlefield, J. W., Selection of hybrids from matings of fibroblasts in vitro and their presumed recombinants, Science 145: 709 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    Littlefield, J. W., The use of drug-resistant markers to study the hybridization of mouse fibroblasts, Exp. Cell Res. 41: 190 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 116.
    Littlefield, J., Hybridization of hamster cells with high and low folate reductase activity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 62: 88 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 117.
    Lubs, H. A., and F. H. Ruddle, Applications of quantitative karyotypy to chromosome variation, in “Human Population Cytogenetics,” (P. A. Jacobs, W. H. Price, and P. Law, eds.), University of Edinburgh Press, Edinburgh (1970), pp. 119–142.Google Scholar
  120. 118.
    Lubs, H. A., and F. H. Ruddle, Chromosome polymorphism in American negro and white populations, Nature (in press).Google Scholar
  121. 119.
    Lucy, J. A., The fusion of biological membranes, Nature 227: 815 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 120.
    Maio, J. J., and C. L. Schildkraut, Isolated mammalian metaphase chromosome. II. Fractionated chromosomes of mouse and Chinese hamster cells, J. Mol. Biol. 40: 203 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 121.
    Markert, C. L., The molecular basis for isozymes, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 151: 14 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 122.
    Matsuya, Y., H. Green, and C. Basilico, Properties and uses of human-mouse hybrid cell lines, Nature 220: 1199 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 123.
    Meera Khan, P., Enzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate gel: Zymogram patterns in man-mouse and man-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids, Biochem. Genet. (in press).Google Scholar
  126. 124.
    Meera Khan, P., A. Westerveld, K. H. Grzeschik, B. F. Deys, O. M. Garson, and M. Siniscalco, X-linkage of human phosphoglycerate-kinase confirmed in man-mouse and man-hamster somatic cell hybrids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. (in press).Google Scholar
  127. 125.
    Migeon, B. R., Hybridization of somatic cells derived from mouse and Syrian hamster • Evolution of karyotype and enzyme studies, Biochem. Genet. 1: 305 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 126.
    Migeon, B. R., X-linked hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency detection of heterozygotes by selective medium, Biochem. Genet. 4: 377 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 127.
    Migeon, B. R., and C. S. Miller, Human-mouse somatic cell hybrids with single human chromosome (group E): Link with thymidine kinase activity, Science 162: 1005 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 128.
    Migeon, B. R., S. W. Smith, and C. L. Leddy, The nature of thymidine kinase in the human-mouse hybrid cell, Biochem. Genet. 3: 583 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 129.
    Miggiano, V., M. Nabholz, and W. Bodmer, Hybrids between human leukocytes and a mouse cell line: Production and characterization, in “Heterospecific Genome Interaction,” The Wistar Institute Symposium Monograph No. 9 (1969), pp. 61–76.Google Scholar
  132. 130.
    Miller, O. J., P. W. Allerdice, D. A. Miller, W. R. Breg, and B. R. Migeon, Human thymidine kinase gene locus: Assignment to chromosome 17 in a hybrid of man and mouse cells, Science 173: 244 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 131.
    Miller, O. J., P. R. Cook, P. Meera Khan, S. Shin, and M. Siniscalco, Mitotic separation of two human X-linked genes in man-mouse somatic cell hybrids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 68: 116 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 132.
    Miller, O. J., D. A. Miller, R. E. Kouri, P. W. Allerdice, V. G. Dev, M. S. Grewal, and J. J. Hutton, Identification of the mouse karyotype by quinacrine fluorescence, and tentative assignment of seven linkage groups (Mus musculus/autosomes/X and Y chromosomes), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68: 1530 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 133.
    Minna, J., P. Nelson, J. Peacock, D. Glazer, and M. Nirenberg, Genes for neuronal properties expressed in neuroblastoma X L cell hybrids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 68: 234 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 134.
    Mohit, B. and K. Fan, Hybrid cell line from a cloned immunoglobulin-producing mouse myeloma and a nonproducing mouse lymphoma, Science 171: 75 (1971).Google Scholar
  137. 135.
    Nabholz, M., Studies on somatic hybridization as a tool for the genetic analysis of man, Ph. D. Thesis, Stanford University (1969).Google Scholar
  138. 136.
    Nabholz, M., V. Miggiano, and W. Bodmer, Genetic analysis with human-mouse somatic cell hybrids, Nature 223: 358 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 137.
    Nadler, H. C. M. Chacko, and M. Rachmeler, Interallelic complementation in hybrid cells derived from human diploid strains deficient in galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase activity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 67: 976 (1970).Google Scholar
  140. 138.
    Naha, P. M., Temperature sensitive conditional mutants of monkey kidney cells, Nature 223: 1380 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 139.
    Neff, J. and J. Enders, Polio virus replication and cytopathogenicity in monolayer hamster cultures fused with beta-propiolactone inactivated Sendai virus, Proc. Soc. Expt. Med. 127: 260 (1968).Google Scholar
  142. 140.
    Nelson, P. W. Ruffner, and M. Nirenberg, Neuronal tumor cells with excitable membranes grown in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 64: 1004 (1969).Google Scholar
  143. 141.
    Ng, W. G., W. R. Bergren, M. Fields, and G. N. Donnell, An improved electrophoretic procedure for galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase: demonstration of multiple activity bands with the Duarte variant, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 37: 354 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 142.
    Nyhan, W. L., B. Bakay, J. Connor, J. Marks, and D. Keele, Hemizygous expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes of heterozygotes for the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 65: 214 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 143.
    Nyhan, W., J. A. James, A. J. Teberg, L. Sweetman, and L. G. Nelson, A new disorder of purine metabolism with behavioral manifestations, J. Pediatrics 74: 20 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 144.
    Nyhan, W. L., J. Pesek, L. Sweetman, D. G. Carpenter, and C. H. Carter, Genetics of an X-linked disorder of uric acid metabolism and cerebral function, Pediat. Res. 1: 5 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 145.
    Ofner, P. and A. H. Tashjian, Jr., Testosterone metabolism by the MH1C1 strain of hepatoma cells, In Vitro 6: 385 (1971).Google Scholar
  148. 146.
    Okada, Y., The fusion of Ehrlich’s tumor cells caused by H. V. J. virus in vitro, Biken’s J. I: 103 (1958).Google Scholar
  149. 147.
    Okada, Y., Analysis of giant polynuclear cell formation caused by HVJ virus from Ehrlich’s ascites tumor cells. I. Microscopic observation of giant polynuclear cell formation, Exp. Cell Res. 26: 98 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 148.
    Okada, Y., Analysis of giant polynuclear cell formation caused by HVJ virus from Ehrlich’s ascites tumor cells. III. Relationship between cell condition and fusion reaction or cell degeneration reaction, Exp. Cell Res. 26: 119 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 149.
    Okada, Y., and F. Murayama, Requirement of calcium ions for the cell fusion reaction of animal cells by HVJ, Exp. Cell Res. 44: 527 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 150.
    Okada, Y., and F. Murayama, Fusion of cells by HVJ: requirement of concentration of virus particles at the site of contact of two cells for fusion, Exp. Cell Res. 52: 34 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 151.
    Okada, Y., F. Murayama, and K. Yamada, Requirement of energy for the cell fusion reaction of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by HVJ, Virology 28: 115 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 152.
    Okada, Y., and J. Tadokoro, Analysis of giant polynuclear cell formation caused by HVJ virus from Ehrlich’s ascites tumor cells. II. Quantitative analysis of giant polynuclear cell formation, Exp. Cell Res. 26: 108 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 153.
    Okada, Y., and J. Tadokoro, The distribution of cell fusion capacity among several cell strains or cells caused by HVJ, Exp. Cell Res. 32: 417 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 154.
    Okada, Y., K. Yamada, and J. Tadokoro, Effect of antiserum on the cell fusion reaction caused by HVJ, Virology 22: 397 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 155.
    Okigaki, T., and L. E. Gerschenson, A hepatic cell line from adult rat liver, In Vitro 6: 394 (1971).Google Scholar
  158. 156.
    Olmsted, J. B., K. Carlson, R. Klebe, F. Ruddle, and J. Rosenbaum, Isolation of microtubule protein from cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 65: 129 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 157.
    Pardue, M. L., and J. G. Gall, Chromosomal localization of mouse satellite DNA, Science 168: 1356 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 158.
    Parrington, J. M., G. Cruckshank, D. A. Hopkinson, E. B. Robson, and H. Harris, Linkage relationships between the three phosphoglucomutase loci PGM1, PGMa, and PGMa, Ann. Human Genet. Lond. 32: 27 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 159.
    Patil, S., S. Merrick, and H. A. Lubs, Identification of each human chromosome with a modified Giemsa stain, Science (in press).Google Scholar
  162. 160.
    Pearson, P. L., M. Bobrow, C. G. Vosa, P. W. Barlow, Quinacrine fluorescence in mammalian chromosomes, Nature 231: 326 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 161.
    Pontecorvo, G., “Trends in Genetic Analysis,” Columbia University Press, New York (1958).Google Scholar
  164. 162.
    Pontecorvo, G., Methods of microbial genetics in an approach to human genetics, Brit. M. Bull. 18: 81 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 163.
    Pontecorvo, G., Induction of directional chromosome elimination in somatic cell hybrids, Nature 230: 367 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Pontecorvo, G., and E. Kafer, Genetic analysis based on mitotic recombination. Adv. in Genet. 9: 71 (1958).Google Scholar
  167. 165.
    Poole, A. R., J. I. Howell, and J. A. Lucy, Lysolecithin in cell fusion, Nature 227: 810 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 166.
    Power, J. B., S. E. Cummins, and E. C. Cocking, Fusion of isolated plant protoplasts, Nature 225: 1016 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 167.
    Puck, T. T., and F. A. Kao, Genetics of somatic mammalian cells, V. Treatment with 5-bromodeoxyuridine and visible light for the isolation of nutritionally deficient mutants, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 58: 1227 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 168.
    Rao, P. N., and R. T. Johnson, Mammalian cell fusion: Studies on the regulation of DNA synthesis and mitosis, Nature 225: 159 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 169.
    Rao, P. N., and R. T. Johnson, Cell fusion and its application to studies on the regulation of the cell cycle (in press).Google Scholar
  172. 170.
    Renwick, J., in “Perspectives in Cytogenetics,” (S. W. Wright, and B. F. Crandall, ed.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield (1971) (in press).Google Scholar
  173. 171.
    Ricciuti, F., and F. H. Ruddle, Biochemical and cytological evidence for a triple hybrid cell line formed from the fusion of three different cells, Science 172: 470 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 172.
    Roderick, T. H., Producing and detecting paracentric chromosomal inversions in mice, Mutation Res. 11: 59 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 173.
    Roderick, T. H., and N. L. Hawes, Two radiation-induced chromosome inversions in mice (Mus musculus), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 67: 961 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 174.
    Roderick, T. H., F. H. Ruddle, V. M. Chapman, and T. B. Shows, Biochemical polymorphisms in feral and inbred mice (Mus musculus), Biochem. Genetics (in press).Google Scholar
  177. 175.
    Roizman, B. Polykaryocytosis induced by viruses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 48: 228 (1962).Google Scholar
  178. 176.
    Roy, K., and F. H. Ruddle (unpublished experiments).Google Scholar
  179. 177.
    Rubin, C. S., J. Dancis, L. C. Yip, R. C. Nowinski, and M. E. Balis, Purification of IMP: pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferases, catalytically incompetent enzymes in Lesch-Nyhan disease, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 68: 1461 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 178.
    Ruddle, F. H., (Unpublished data).Google Scholar
  181. 179.
    Ruddle, F. H., Quantitation and automation of chromosomal data with special reference to the chromosomes of the Hamshire pig (Sus scrofa), in “Symposium of the International Society for Cell Biology”, Vol. 3, Academic Press, New York (1964), pp. 273–305.Google Scholar
  182. 180.
    Ruddle, F. H., Isozymic variants as genetic markers in somatic cell populations in vitro, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monograph 29: 9 (1969).Google Scholar
  183. 181.
    Ruddle, F. H., Enzyme and genetic linkage studies employing human and mouse somatic cells, in “Problems in Biology: RNA in Development” (E. W. Hanley, ed.) University of Utah Press (1969).Google Scholar
  184. 182.
    Ruddle, F. H., Utilization of somatic cells for genetic analysis: Possibilities and problems, in “Symposium of the International Society for Cell Biology”, Vol. 9, Academic Press, New York (1970), pp. 233–264.Google Scholar
  185. 183.
    Ruddle, F. H., V. M. Chapman, T. R. Chen, and R. J. Klebe, Linkage relationships between human lactate dehydrogenase genes A and B and the peptidase B gene in man/mouse somatic cell hybrids, Nature 227: 251 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 184.
    Ruddle, F. H., V. M. Chapman, F. Ricciuti, M. Murnane, R. Klebe, and P. Meera Khan, Linkage relationships of seventeen human gene loci as determined by man-mouse somatic cell hybrids, Nature 232: 69 (1971).Google Scholar
  187. 185.
    Ruddle, F. H., and T. R. Chen, Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  188. 186.
    Ruddle, F. H., and T. R. Chen, Utilization of centric heterochromatin for chromosome identification in somatic cell hybrids, in “Perspectives in Cytogenetics,” (S. W. Wright, and B. F. Crandall, eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Colorado Springs (1971) (in press).Google Scholar
  189. 187.
    Ruddle, F. H., T. R. Chen, and C. Boone, Assignment of genes to chromosomes using somatic cell hybrids (TK:E17; LDH-A:C11; IDH:F-20), in “Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium of Human Genetics,” (J. DeGrouchy, ed.) Excerpta Medica (1971).Google Scholar
  190. 188.
    Ruddle, F. H., T. R. Chen, T. B. Shows, and S. Silagi, Interstrain somatic cell hybrids in the mouse, Exp. Cell Res. 60: 139 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 189.
    Ruddle, F. H., and W. Gehring, (Unpublished findings).Google Scholar
  192. 190.
    Ruddle, F. H., and R. S. Ledley, Consideration of metaphase chromosome parameters amenable to digital computer analysis, In Vitro 1: 21 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 191.
    Ruddle, F. H., and E. A. Nichols, Starch gel electrophoretic phenotypes of mouse x human somatic cell hybrids and mouse isozyme polymorphisms, In Vitro (in press).Google Scholar
  194. 192.
    Ruddle, F. H., and T. H. Roderick, The genetic control of three kidney esterases in C57BL/6J and RF/J mice, Genetics 51: 445 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 193.
    Ruddle, F. H., T. B. Shows, T. H. Roderick, P. G. Weigl, R. K. Chipman, and P. K. Anderson, Measurement of genetic heterogeneity in wild populations of the mouse (Mus musculus) by means of enzyme polymorphisms, J. Heredity 60: 321 (1969).Google Scholar
  196. 194.
    Ruddle, F. H., S. Smith, R. S. Ledley, and M. Belson, Replication-precision study of manual and automatic chromosome analysis, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 157: 400 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 195.
    Rugstad, H. E., S. H. Robinson, C. Yannoni, and A. H. Tashjian, Jr., Metabolism of bilirubin by a clonal strain of rat hepatoma cells, J . Cell Biol. 47: 703 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 196.
    Sachs, L., Regulation of phenotypic expression in transformed cells. Presented at Tissue Culture Association, Annual Meeting, June, 1971. See also Hitotsumachi, S., Z. Rabinowitz, and L. Sachs, Chromosomal control of reversion in transformed cells. Nature 231: 511 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 197.
    Santachiara, A. S., M. Nabholz, V. Miggiano, A. J. Darlington, and W. Bodmer, Genetic analysis with man-mouse somatic cell hybrids: Linkage between human lactate dehydrogenase B and peptidase B genes, Nature 227: 248 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 198.
    Scaletta, L. J., N. B. Rushforth, and B. Ephrussi, Isolation and properties of hybrids between somatic mouse and Chinese hamster cells, Genetics 57: 107 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 199.
    Schneeberg, E. E., and H. Harris, An ultrastructural study of interspecific cell fusion induced by inactivated Sendai virus, J. Cell Sci. 1: 401 (1966).Google Scholar
  202. 200.
    Schubert, D., S. Humphreys, C. Baroni, and M. Cohn, In vitro differentiation of a mouse neuroblastoma, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 64: 316 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 201.
    Schwartz, A. G., P. R. Cook, and H. Harris, Correction of a genetic defect in a mammalian cell, Nature 230: 5 (1971).Google Scholar
  204. 202.
    Seeds, N. W., A. G. Gilman, T. Amano, and M. W. Nirenberg, Regulation of axon formation by clonal lines of a neural tumor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 66: 160 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 203.
    Shaw, M. W., and M. M. Cohen, Chromosome exchanges in human leukocytes induced by mitomycin C, Genetics 51: 181 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 204.
    Shin, S., P. Meera Khan, and P. R. Cook, Characterization of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase in man-mouse somatic cell hybrids by an improved electrophoretic method, Biochem. Genetics 5: 91 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 205.
    Shows, T., Personal communication.Google Scholar
  208. 206.
    Shows, T. B., Human gene linkage studies with human/mouse somatic cell hybrids, Fed. Proc. 30: 458 (1971).Google Scholar
  209. 207.
    Shows, T. B., 4th International Congress of Human Genetics, Paris (1971).Google Scholar
  210. 208.
    Shows, T. B., V. M. Chapman, and F. H. Ruddle, Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme: Mendelian inherited electrophoretic variants in the mouse, Biochem. Genetics 4: 707 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 209.
    Shows, T. B., E. J. Massaro, and F. H. Ruddle, Evolutionary evidence for a regulator gene controlling the lactate dehydrogenase B gene in rodent erythrocytes, Biochem. Genetcs 3: 525 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 210.
    Shows, T. B., and F. H. Ruddle, Function of the lactate dehydrogenase B gene in mouse erythrocytes: Evidence for control by a regulatory gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 61: 574 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 211.
    Silagi, S., and S. A. Bruce, Suppression of malignancy and differentiation in melanotic melanoma cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 66: 72 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 212.
    Silagi, S., G. Darlington, and S. A. Bruce, Hybridization of two biochemically marked human cell lines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 62: 1085 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 213.
    Siniscalco, M., H. P. Klinger, H. Eagle, H. Koprowski, W. F. Fujimoto, and J. E. Seegmiller, Evidence for intergenic complementation in hybrid cells derived from two human diploid strains each carrying an X-linked mutation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 62: 793 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 214.
    Siniscalco, M., B. B. Knowles, and Z. Steplewski, Hybridization of human diploid strains carrying X-linked mutants and its potential in studies of somatic cell genetics, in “Heterospecific Genome Interaction,” The Wistar Institute Symposium Monograph No. 9 (1969), pp. 117–136.Google Scholar
  217. 215.
    Slesinski, R., K. Sato, and J. W. Littlefield, Genetic studies of immunoglobulinproducing lymphoblastoid cells, In Vitro 6: 394 (1971). Abstracts from Twenty-Second Annual Meeting.Google Scholar
  218. 216.
    Sorbel, J. S., A. Albrecht, H. Riehn, and J. Beidler, Hybridization of actinomycin D and amethopterin resistant Chinese hamster cells in vitro, Cancer Res. 31: 297 (1971).Google Scholar
  219. 217.
    Soule, H. D., S. Albert, P. L. Wolf, and P. G. Stansly, Erythropoietic differentiation of stable cell lines derived from hematopoietic organs of mice with virus-induced leukemia, Exptl. Cell Res. 42: 380 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 218.
    Spencer, N., D. A. Hopkinson, and H. Harris, Phosphoglucomutase polymorphisms in man, Nature 204: 742 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 219.
    Spencer, N., D. A. Hopkinson, and H. Harris, Adenosine deaminase polymorphisms in man, Ann. Human Genetics 32: 9 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 220.
    Stephenson, J. R., A. A. Axelrad, D. L. McLeod, and M. M. Shreeve, Induction of colonies of hemoglobin-synthesizing cells by erythropoietin in vitro (fetal mouse liver/erythropoietin/erythroid cells/68Fe/granulocytes), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 68: 1542 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 221.
    Stern, C., Somatic crossing over and segregation in Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics 21: 625 (1936).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 222.
    Stern, C., The nucleus and somatic cell variation, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 52 (suppl. 1): 1 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 223.
    Stevens, L. C., Origin of testicular teratomas from primordial germ cells in mice, J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 38: 549 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 224.
    Stockdale, F. E., and H. Holtzer, DNA synthesis and myogenesis, Exp. Cell Res. 24: 508 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 225.
    Sumner, A. T., H. J. Evans, and R. A. Buckland, New technique for distinguishing between human chromosomes, Nature New Biology 232: 31 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 226.
    Szybalski, W., and M. J. Smith, Genetics of human cell lines. I. 8-azaguanine resistance, a selective “single-step” marker, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 101: 662 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 227.
    Szybalski, W., E. H. Szybalska, and G. Ragni, Genetic studies with human cell lines, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 7: 75 (1962).Google Scholar
  230. 228.
    Tashjian, A. H., Jr., Y. Yasumura, L. Levine, G. H. Sato, and M. L. Parker, Establishment of clonal strains of rat pituitary tumor cells that secrete growth hormone, Endocrinology 82: 342 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 229.
    Taylor, M. W., M. Souhrada, and J. McCall, New class of purine mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells, Science 172: 162 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 230.
    Thompson, L. H. R. Mankovitz, R. M. Baker, J. E. Till, L. Siminovitch, and G. F. Whitmore, Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of L-cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 66: 377 (1970).Google Scholar
  233. 231.
    Van Cong, N., C. Billardon, J.-Y. Picard, J. Feingold, and J. Frézal, Laison probable (linkage) entre les locus PGM-1 et Pep-C chez l’homme, C. R. Acad. Sci. 272: 485 (1971).Google Scholar
  234. 232.
    Vosa, C. G., Heterochromatin recognition with fluorochromes, Chromosoma (Berl). 30: 366 (1970).Google Scholar
  235. 233.
    Wang, R., R. Pollack, T. Kusano, and H. Green, Human-mouse hybrid cell lines and susceptibility to poliovirus. I. Conversion from polio sensitivity to polio resistance accompanying loss of human gene-dependent polio receptors, J. Virology 5: 677 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 234.
    Watkins, J. F., and R. Dulbecco, Production of SV40 virus in heterokaryons of transformed and susceptible cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 58: 1396 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 235.
    Watkins, J. F., and D. M. Grace, Studies on the surface antigens of interspecific mammalian cell heterokaryons, J. Cell Sci. 2: 193 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 236.
    Waymouth, C., H. W. Chen, and B. G. Wood, Characteristics of mouse liver parenchymal cells in chemically defined media, In Vitro 6: 371 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 237.
    Weiss, M. C., and B. Ephrussi, Studies of interspecific (rat x mouse) somatic hybrids. I. Isolation, growth and evolution of the karyotype, Genetics 54: 1095 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 238.
    Weiss, M. C., and B. Ephrussi, Studies of interspecific (rat x mouse) somatic hybrids.Google Scholar
  241. II. Lactic dehydrogenase and ß-glucuronidase, Genetics 54: 1111 (1966).Google Scholar
  242. 239.
    Weiss, M. C., and H. Green, Human-mouse hybrid cell lines containing partial complements of human chromosomes and functioning human genes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 58: 1104 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 240.
    Westerveld, A., and P. Meera Khan, Evidence for linkage between human loci for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and phosphoglucomutase-1 in man-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids, Nature 236: 30 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 241.
    Yasmineh, W. G., and J. J. Yunis, Localization of mouse satellite DNA in constitutive heterochromatin, Exptl. Cell Res. 59: 69 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 242.
    Yerganian, G., and M. B. Nell, Hybridization of dwarf hamster cells by UV-inactivated Sendai virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 55: 1066 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 243.
    Yoshida, M. C., and B. Ephrussi, Isolation and karyological characteristics of seven hybrids between somatic mouse cells in vitro, J. Cell. Physiol. 69: 33 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 244.
    Zepp, H. D., J. H. Conover, K. Hirschhorn, and H. L. Hodes, Human-mosquito somatic cell hybrids induced by ultraviolet-inactivated Sendai virus, Nature New Biology 229: 119 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Added References

  1. 245.
    Chen, T. R., and F. H. Ruddle, Assignment of MOD to C-6 and LDH-B/Pep B to C-12 by somatic cell genetics, submitted to Amer. J. Human Genet. Google Scholar
  2. 246.
    Jones, Carol, P. Wuthier, F. Kao, and T. Puck, Genetics of somatic mammalian cells XV: Evidence for linkage between human genes for lactate dehydrogenase B and serine hydroxymethylase, J. Cellular Physiol.,in press.Google Scholar
  3. 247.
    McMorris, F. A., and F. H. Ruddle, Assignment of MPI to C-7 and GPI to F-19 by somatic cell genetics, to be submitted to Ann. Human Genet. (Lond).Google Scholar
  4. 248.
    Puck, T. T., P. Wuthier, C. Jones, and F. Kao, Genetics of somatic mammalian cells: Lethal antigens as genetic markers for study of human linkage groups, PNAS 68: 3102 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 249.
    Ricciuti, F., and F. H. Ruddle, Assignment of nucleoside phosphorylase to D-14 and localization of X linked loci in man by somatic cell genetics, submitted to Nature. Google Scholar
  6. 250.
    Ruddle, F. H., Gene assignment in man by cell genetics, Conference on Transformed Lymphocytic Cell Lines,Arlie House, National Foundation Publications, in press.Google Scholar
  7. 251.
    Ruddle, F. H., New developments in the establishment of gene linkage relationships in man. Mechanisms and Prospects of Genetic Exchange, Scherring Symposium,in press.Google Scholar
  8. 252.
    Ruddle, F. H., and T. R. Chen, Gene assignment in man by somatic cell genetics, 21st Symposium on the Biology of Skin: Genetics and the Skin,W. Montagna and L. Pastor (eds.), in press.Google Scholar
  9. 253. Ruddle, F. H., F. Ricciuti, F. A. McMorris, J. Tischfield, R. Creagan, G. Darlington, and T. Chen, Assignment of peptidase C and the Rh linkage group to chromosome A-1 in man by somatic cell genetic analysis of human/mouse hybrid cells, submitted to Science. Google Scholar
  10. 254.
    Shows, T., Genetics of human/mouse somatic cell hybrids: linkage of human genes for malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, 4th International Congress of Human Genetics, Paris, 1971, Excerpta Medica p. 165, abst. 600, publication No. 233.Google Scholar
  11. 255.
    Tischfield, J., and F. Ruddle, Assignment of APRT to chromosomes D13 or D14 by somatic cell genetics, unpublished results.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank H. Ruddle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology Kline Biology TowerYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations