Advertisement

Toward Environment-Behavior Theories of the Middle Range

I. Their Structure and Relation to Normative Design Theories
  • Gary T. Moore
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Environment, Behavior and Design book series (AEBD, volume 4)

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to examine several epistemological questions underlying the nature of theory in the environment-behavior (EB) and design fields.1 Among these questions are: What is an EB theory, or, said differently, what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for something to be called a theory? What is the form and scope of different things that purport to be theories dealing with EB relations? What are the similarities and differences between EB theories and design theories, and is it possible to integrate theories linking environment, behavior, and design?2

Keywords

Scientific Theory Design Theory Child Care Center Empirical Reality Oxford English Dictionary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackoff, R. L., Gupta, S. K., and Minas, J. S. (1962). Scientific method: Optimizing applied research decisions. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, C. (1979). The timeless way of building. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, C. (1993). The nature of order: An essay on the art of building and the nature of the universe (3 vols.). Berkeley, CA: Center for Environmental Structure.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., and Silverstein, M. (1977). A pattern language. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, C., Neis, H., Anninou, A., and King, I. (1987). A new theory of urban design. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Altman, I. (Chair) (1973). Theory of man-environment relations. In W. F. E. Preiser (Ed.), Environmental design research (Vol. 2, pp. 98–181 ). Edmond, OK: Environmental Design Research Association.Google Scholar
  7. Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  8. Altman, I., and Rogoff, B. (1987). World views in psychology. In D. Stokols and I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 7–40 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Altman, I., Werner, C. M., Oxley, D., and Haggard, L. M. (1987). “Christmas Street” as an example of transactionally oriented research. Environment and Behavior, 19, 501–524.Google Scholar
  10. Bacon, F. (1960). Novum organum (The new organum, and related writings) (F. H. Anderson, Ed.).Google Scholar
  11. New York: Liberal Arts Press. (Original work published 1923 )Google Scholar
  12. Barker, R. G. (1968). Ecological psychology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Baum, A., and Paulus, P. B (1987). Crowding. In D. Stokols and I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 533–570). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Blake, R. M., Ducasse, C. J., and Madden, E. H. (1960). Theories of scientific method: The Renaissance through the nineteenth century. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bochenski, I. M. (1966). Contemporary European philosophy. Berkeley: University of California Press. Bonta, J. P. (1979). Architecture and its interpretation. New York: Rizzoli.Google Scholar
  16. Broadbent, G. (1973). Design in architecture. London: Fulton.Google Scholar
  17. Burgess, W. (1927). The determination of gradients in the growth of the city. American Sociological Society Publications, 21, 178–184.Google Scholar
  18. Canter, D. (1972, September 6). Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill, Glasgow: A psychological analysis. Architects’ Journal, 156 (36), 525–564.Google Scholar
  19. Carp, F. M. (1987). Environment and aging. In D. Stokols and I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 329–360 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Cassirer, E. (1953). The philosophy of symbolic forms. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Catton, W. R., and Dunlap, R. E. (1978). Environmental sociology: A new paradigm. American Sociologist, 13, 41–49.Google Scholar
  21. Chase, R. A. (Chair) (1973). Theoretical issues in man-environment relations. In W. F. E. Preiser (Ed.), Environmental design research (Vol. 1, pp. 1–58 ). Edmond, OK: Environmental Design Research Association.Google Scholar
  22. Christaller, W. (1933). Central place theory. Cited in P. Haggett (1965). Locational analysis in human geography. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, S. (1978). Environmental load and the allocation of attention. In A. Baum, J. E. Singer, and S. Valins (Eds.), Advances in environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 1–29 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Conrads, U. (Ed.). (1970). Programs and manifestos on 20th-century architecture. London: Lund Humphries; and Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Craik, K. H. (1968). The comprehension of the everyday physical environment. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 3429–37. Google Scholar
  26. Craik, K. H. (1970). Environmental psychology. In T. M. Newcomb (Ed.) New directions in psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 1–121). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Google Scholar
  27. Craik, K. H. (1976). The personality research paradigm in environmental psychology. In S. Wapner, S. B. Cohen, and B. Kaplan (Eds.), Experiencing the environment (pp. 55–79 ). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Craik, K. H. (1977). Multiple scientific paradigms in environmental psychology. International Journal of Psychology, 12, 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Descartes, R. (1993). Discourse on method, and Meditations on first philosophy (D. A. Cress, Trans.). Indianapolis, IN: Hackett. (Original work published 1641 )Google Scholar
  30. Dewey, J., and Bentley, A. F. (1949). Knowing and the known. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  31. Fisher, J. D., Bell, P. A., and Baum, A. (1984). Environmental psychology ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  32. Garling, T., and Golledge, R. G. (1989). Environmental perception and cognition. In E. H. Zube and G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 2, pp. 203–236 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  33. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  34. Gold, J. R., and Goodey, B. (1983). Behavioural and perceptual geography. Progress in Human Geography, 7, 578–586.Google Scholar
  35. Groat, L. P., and Canter, D. V. (1979). Dost post-modernism communicate? Progressive Architecture, 60 (12), 84–87.Google Scholar
  36. Groat, L. P., and Déspres, C. (1991). The significance of architectural theory for environmental design research. In E. H. Zube and G..T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 3, pp. 3–52 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  37. Gropius, W. (1962). The scope of total architecture. New York: Collier.Google Scholar
  38. Hart, R. A., and Moore, G. T. (1973). The development of spatial cognition. In R. M. Downs and D. Stea (Eds.), Image and environment (pp. 246–288 ). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  39. Hendel, C. W. (1953). Introduction. In E. Cassirer, The philosophy of symbolic forms New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ittelson, W. H. (1970). Perception of the large-scale environment. Transactions of th: New York Academy of Sciences (Series II ), 32, 807–815.Google Scholar
  41. Ittelson, W. H. (1989). Notes on theory in environment and behavior research. In E. H. Zube and G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 2, pp. 71–83 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  42. Jencks, C. (1977). The language of post-modern architecture. London: Academy.Google Scholar
  43. Kaminski, G. (1989). The relevance of ecologically oriented conceptualizations to theory building in environment and behavior research. In E. H. Zube and G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 2, pp. 3–36 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  44. Kant, I. (1950). Critique of pure reason ( 2nd ed., N. K. Smith, Trans.). London: Macmillan. (Original work published 1781 )Google Scholar
  45. Krampen, M. (1991). Environmental meaning. In E. H. Zube and G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 3, pp. 231–268 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  46. Krech, D. (1949–50). Notes toward a psychological theory. Journal of Personality, 18,66–87. Kuhn, T. S. (1962/1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (1st and 2nd eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  47. Lang, J. (1987). Creating architectural theory. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  48. Lang, J. (1991). Design theory from an environment and behavior perspective. In E. H. Zube and G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 3, pp. 53–101). NewGoogle Scholar
  49. York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  50. Lawrence, R. J. (1989). Structuralist theories in environment-behavior-design research. In E. H. Zube and G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 2, pp. 37–70 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  51. Lawton, M. P. (1975). Competence, environmental press, and the adaptation of older people. In P. G. Windley, T. O. Byerts, and F. G. Ernst (Eds.), Theory development in environment and aging (pp. 13–83 ). Washington, DC: Gerontological Society of America.Google Scholar
  52. Lawton, M. P., and Nahenmow, L. (1973). Ecology and the aging process. In C. Eisdorfer and M. P. Lawton (Eds.), Psychology of adult development and aging (pp. 619–674 ). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Le Corbusier (1923/1946). Vers une architecture/Toward a new architecture (F. Etchells, Trans.). London: Architectural Press; New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  54. LeShan, L., and Margenau, H. (1982). Einstein’s space and Van Gogh’s sky: Physical reality and beyond. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  55. Lesnikowski, W. (1987). On the changing nature of theories in architecture. Inland Architect, 31, 28–39.Google Scholar
  56. Lynch, K. (1981). A theory of good city form. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  57. MacKinnon, D. W. (1953). Fact and fancy in personality research. American Psychologist, 8, 138–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marans, R. W. (1976). Perceived quality of residential environments. In K. H. Craik and E. H. Zube (Eds.), Perceiving environmental quality (pp. 123–147 ). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Merton, R. K. (1957). Social theory and social structure (rev. ed.). New York: Free Press. Michelson, W. (1977). Environmental choice, human behavior, and residential satisfaction. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Moore, G. T. (1971). Review of Jean Piaget, Science of education and the psychology of the child. Journal of Architectural Education, 25 (4), 113–114.Google Scholar
  61. Moore, G. T. (Chair) (1972). Symposium on conceptual issues in environmental cognition research. In W. J. Mitchell (Ed.), Environmental design research and practice (Vol. 2, pp. 30–130–13). Edmond, OK: Environmental Design Research Association.Google Scholar
  62. Moore, G. T. (1976). Theory and research on the development of environmental knowing. In G. T. Moore and R. G. Golledge (Eds.), Environmental knowing: Theories, research, and methods (pp. 138–164 ). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  63. Moore, G. T. (1979, September). Architecture and human behavior: The place of environment-behavior studies in architecture. Wisconsin Architect, 18–21.Google Scholar
  64. Moore, G. T. ( 1986, July). A framework for theories of environment and behavior: Units of analysis and the locus of control of behavior. Paper presented at the International Association for Applied Psychology 21st Biennial Congress, Jerusalem, Israel.Google Scholar
  65. Moore, G. T. (1987a). Environment and behavior research in North America. In D. Stokols and I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1359–1410 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Moore, G. T. (1987b). The physical environment and cognitive development in child care centers. In C. S. Weinstein and T. G. David (Eds.), Spaces for children: The built environment and child development (pp. 41–72 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  67. Moore, G. T. ( 1988, July). Toward a conceptualization of EBS and design theories of the middle range. Paper presented at the International Association for the People-Environment Studies 10th Biennial Conference, Delft, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  68. Moore, G. T. ( 1991, March). The nature of EBS and design theories: Framing the debate. Paper presented at the Environmental Design Research Association 22nd Annual Conference, Oaxtepec, Mexico.Google Scholar
  69. Moore, G. T. (1993). Ready to learn: Toward design standards for child care facilities. The Educational Facility Planner, 32, 4–10.Google Scholar
  70. Moore, G. T., and Golledge, R. G. (1976). Environmental knowing: Concepts and theories. In G. T. Moore and R. G. Golledge (Eds.), Environmental knowing: Theories, research, and methods (pp. 324 ). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  71. Moore, G. T., and Lackney, J. A. (1993). School design: Crisis, educational performance, and design applications. Children’s Environments, 10, 99–112.Google Scholar
  72. Moore, G. T., Lane, C. G., Hill, A. B., Cohen, U., and McGinty, T. (1994). Recommendations for child care centers (3rd ed., 1994). (Report R79–2 ). Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Center for Architecture and Urban Planning Research.Google Scholar
  73. Moore, G. T., Rapoport, A., Kubala, T., and Krause, L. (1994). Theories of environment-behavior relations. In G. Bizios (Ed.), Architecture reading lists and course outlines, vol. 3: Architectural design, human behavior, special topics (rev. ed., pp. 297–303 ). Raleigh, NC: Eno River Press.Google Scholar
  74. Moore, G. T., Tuttle, D. P., and Howell, S. C. (1985). Environmental design research directions: Process and prospects. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  75. Morton, D. (1981). Congregate housing: Captain Clarence Eldridge House, Hyannis, Ma. Progressive Architecture, 62, 64–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Nash, L. A. (1963). The nature of the natural sciences. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  77. Neisser, U. (1976). Cognition and reality. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  78. Newton, I. (1968). Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (The mathematical principles of natural philosophy) (A. Motte, Trans.). London: Printed by Joseph Streater for the Royal Society-Dawson. (Original work published 1687 )Google Scholar
  79. Norberg-Schultz, C. (1971). Existence, space, and architecture. New York: Oxford University Press. Oxford English Dictionary, The Compact Edition. (1984). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Parsons, T. ( 1959 ). An approach to psychological theory in terms of the theory of action. In S.Google Scholar
  80. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science (Vol. 3). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  81. Piaget, J. (1950). The psychology of intelligence. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul; New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  82. Piaget, J. (1970). Genetic epistemology. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  83. Piaget, J. (1971). Science of education and the psychology of the child. New York: Grossman-Orion. Platt, J. R. (1964). Strong inference. Science, 146, 347–353.Google Scholar
  84. Popper, K. R. (1965). The logic of scientific discovery. New York: Harper and Row. Rapoport, A. (1969). House form and culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  85. Rapoport, A. (1973). An approach to the construction of man-environment theory. In W. F. E.Google Scholar
  86. Preiser (Ed.), Environmental design research (pp. 124–135). Edmond, OK: EnvironmentalGoogle Scholar
  87. Design Research Association.Google Scholar
  88. Rapoport, A. (1977). Human aspects of urban form. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  89. Rapoport, A., and Hawkes, R. (1970). The perception of urban complexity. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 36, 106–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Seamon, D. (1980). A geography of the lifeworld. London: Croom/Helm.Google Scholar
  91. Seamon, D. (1987). Phenomenology and environment-behavior research. In E. H. Zube and G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 1, pp. 3–27 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  92. Stokols, D. (1977). Origins and directions of environment-behavior research. In D. Stokols (Ed.), Perspectives on environment and behavior (pp. 1–36 ). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stokols, D. (1979). A congruence analysis of human stress. In I. G. Sarason and C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 6, pp. 27–53 ). Washington, DC: Hemisphere Press.Google Scholar
  94. Studer, R. G. (1970). The dynamics of behavior-contingent physical systems. In H. M. Proshansky, W. H. Ittelson, and L. G. Rivlin (Eds.), Environmental psychology (pp. 56–67 ). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  95. Taylor, R. B. (1987). Toward an environmental psychology of disorder: Delinquency, crime, and fear of crime. In D. Stokols and I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 951–986 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  96. Terhune, K. (1972). Big “T,” little “t,” or no theory at all. Unpublished paper, Department of Psychology, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  97. Toulmin, S. E. (1953). Foresight and understanding. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  98. Toulmin, S. E. (1995). Philosophy of science. In Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia (Vol. 25, pp. 652–669 ). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.Google Scholar
  99. Venturi, R (1966). Complexity and contradiction in architecture New York: Museum of Modem Art. Viladas, P., and Fisher, T. (1986). Harmony and wholeness: P/A profile-Christopher Alexander. Progressive Architecture, 68(6),92–103.Google Scholar
  100. Von Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General systems theory. New York: Braziller.Google Scholar
  101. Wapner, S. (1981). Transactions of persons-in-environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1, 223–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wapner, S., Cirillo, L., and Baker, A. H. (1971). Some aspects of the development of space perception. In J. P. Hill (Ed.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 38–67 ). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  103. Wapner, S., Kaplan, B., and Cohen, S. B. (1973). An organismic-developmental perspective for understanding the transactions of men-and-environments. Environment and Behavior, 5, 255–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Werner, H. (1957). The comparative psychology of mental growth (rev. ed.). New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  105. Westheimer, F. H. (1992). Deciding how much science is enough. Harvard Magazine, 94(5), 38–40. Whitehead, A. N. (1964). The concept of nature. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published in 1919 )Google Scholar
  106. Winnett, R. A. (1987). Empiricist-positivist theories of environment and behavior. In E. H. Zube and G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 1, pp. 29–57 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  107. Wohlwill, J. F. (1966). The physical environment: A problem for the psychology of stimulation. Journal of Social Issues, 22, 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wright, F. L. (1960). Frank Lloyd Wright: Writings and buildings (E. Kaufmann and B. Raeburn, Eds.). New York: Horizon.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary T. Moore
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of ArchitectureUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations