Vitamins in Milk and Milk Products

  • R. Öste
  • M. Jägerstad
  • I. Andersson

Abstract

Vitamins play an important role in intermediary metabolism as co-factors in numerous enzymatic reactions or in non-enzymatic physiological functions such as the visual process (vitamin A), as antioxidants (carotenoids, vitamins E, C, and riboflavin), in regulation of calcium metabolism (vitamin D) and in haematopoiesis (vitamin B12, folates and vitamin B6). Although research in the last few decades has in most cases been focused merely on deficiencies in order to establish requirements, development of diagnosis, etc., there is now a renewed interest in the role of vitamins in the maintenance of health. Recognition of the prominent role of some vitamins as antioxidants, in cell proliferation/differentiation, and in immune function has shed new light on the importance of these essential nutrients in the prevention of many chronic diseases, e.g. coronary heart disease, cancer and other immunorelated diseases (van den Berg et al., 1993).

Keywords

Tryptophan Lactobacillus Pectin Ileal Palmitate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abd El-Gawad, I.A., El-Abd, M.M., Ragab, F.H., El-Aasar, M.A. (1988) Study on vitamin B2 in milk and some milk products, Egypt. J. Food Sci., 16, 175–92.Google Scholar
  2. Abdulaly, A.G., Simpson, K.L. (1989) Reversed-phase column chromatography for the determination of retinol in some foods, J. Micronutrient Analysis, 5, 161–70.Google Scholar
  3. Arhné, L. (1995) Tetra Pak AB, personal communication.Google Scholar
  4. Akiyama, T., Selhub, J., Rosenberg, I.H. (1982) FMN phosphate and FAD pyrophosphatase in rat intestinal brush borders: role in intestinal absorption of dietary riboflavin, J. Nutr., 112, 263–8.Google Scholar
  5. Allen, J.C., Joseph, G. (1983) Chemical causes of flavour deterioration in pasteurized milk, J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 36, 21–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersson, I. (1993) Nutritional and sensory quality of heat processed liquid milk, PhD Thesis,University of Lund, Sweden.Google Scholar
  7. Andersson, I.,Öste, R. (1992) Loss of ascorbic acid, folacin and vitamin B12, and changes in oxygen content of UHT milk, Milchwissenschaft,47 233–4, 299–302.Google Scholar
  8. Andersson, I., Oste, R. (1994) Nutritional quality of pasteurized milk. Content of vitamin B12, folacin and ascorbic acid during storage, Int. Dairy J., 4, 16172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andersson, I. Lundqvist, R., Oste, R. (1990) Analysis of vitamin B12 in milk with a radiosotope dilution assay, Milchwissenschaft,45 507–9.Google Scholar
  10. Antila, P. (1983) Vitamin D content and antirachitic effects of human milk and cow’s milk, Duodecim, 99, 762–5.Google Scholar
  11. Antila, P., Antila, V. (1983) The content and antirachitic effect of vitamin D in cow’s and human milk: a reevaluation of water-soluble vitamin D compound, Sci. Alim., 3, 491–8.Google Scholar
  12. Antila, P., Laukkanen, M., Antila, V., Salminen, K. (1990) Occurrence of different folate forms in liquid milk products, Proc. XXIII Int. Dairy Congr., Montreal, Brief Commun. 1, 170.Google Scholar
  13. Areekul, S., Quarom, K., Doungbarn, J. (1977) Determination of vitamin B12 and vitamin B12 binding proteins in human and cow’s milk, Mod. Med. Asia, 13, 17–23.Google Scholar
  14. Arima, A., Tsugawa, Y., Hasegawa, H. (1990) Vitamins D3 and D2 determination in dairy products by internal standard-redox mode electrochemical detection, Proc. XXIII Int. Dairy Congr. Montreal, Brief Commun. I, p. 218.Google Scholar
  15. Ashoor, S.H., Seperich, G.J., Monte, W.C., Welty, J. (1983) HPLC determination of riboflavin in eggs and dairy products, J. Food Sci., 48, 92–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Atwal, M., Hidiroglou, M., Kramer, J.K.G. (1991) Effects of feeding Protec and ‘y-tocoferol on fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of cows milk, J. Dairy Sci., 74, 140–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bain, B., Broom, G.N., Woodside J., et al. (1982) Assessment of a radioisotope essay for vitamin B12, J. Clin. Pathol., 35, 1110–13.Google Scholar
  18. Ball, G.F.M. (1988) Fat-Soluble Vitamin Assays in Food Analysis. A Comprehensive Review, Elsevier Applied Science, London.Google Scholar
  19. Bartholomew, B.P., Ogden, L.V. (1990) Effect of emulsifiers and fortification methods on light stability of vitamin A in milk, J. Dairy Sci., 73, 1485–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bates, C.J., Heseker, H. (1994) Human bioavailability of vitamins, Nutr. Res. Rev., 7, 93–127.Google Scholar
  21. Bedo, S., Mezes, M., Barcsak-Toth, G., et al. (1988) Effect of winter and summer feeding on vitamin A and E content of milk of Merino ewes, Allattenyesztes Takarmanyozas, 37, 63–71.Google Scholar
  22. Behrens, W.A., Madere, R. (1987) A highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method for the estimation of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid in tissues, biological fluids, and foods, Anal. Biochem., 165, 102–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bekhof, J.J., van den Bedem, J.W. (1988) Study on the determination of vitamin D in fortified milk, milk powder and infant formula by HPLC using a column switching technique, Neth. Milk Dairy J., 42, 423–36.Google Scholar
  24. Bendich, A., Velez, R. (1987) The non-vitamin A functions of I3-carotene, Report submitted by Hoffmann-La Roche, pp. 1–55.Google Scholar
  25. Bilic, N. (1991) Assay for both ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid in dairy foods by high-performance, liquid chromatography using precolumn derivatization with methoxy-and ethoxy-1,2-phenylenediamine, J. Chromatogr., 543, 367–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bilk, N., Sieber, R. (1988a) Use of a column for the extraction, drying and purification of retinol and a-tocopherol for estimation in milk and dairy products with high-performance liquid chromatography, Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem., 330, 143–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bilic, N., Sieber, R. (1988b) Determination of retinol and alpha-tocopherol in milk and milk products using high-pressure liquid chromatography after saponification in serum vials, Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 186, 514–18.Google Scholar
  28. Bilic, N., Sieber, R. (1990) Determination of flavins in dairy products by high-performance liquid chromatography using sorboflavin as internal standard, J. Chromatogr., 511, 359–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bjorneboe, A., Bjorneboe, G.E., Drevon, C.A. (1990) Absorption, transport and distribution of vitamin E, J. Nutr., 120, 233–42.Google Scholar
  30. Blanc, B. (1980) Einfluss der termischen Behandlung auf die wichtigsten Milchinhaltsstofe and auf den Ernahrungsphysiologischen wert der Milch, Alimenta: Sonderausgabe Milcherhitzungsverfahren, 5–25.Google Scholar
  31. Blanchard, J. (1991) Effects of gender on vitamin C pharmacokinetics in man, J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 10, 453–9.Google Scholar
  32. Blanchard, J., Conrad, K.A., Mead, R.A., Garry, R.J. (1990) Vitamin C disposition in young and elderly men, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 51, 837–45.Google Scholar
  33. Bolton-Smith, C. (1993) Vitamin K, in Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 9th edn, ( J.S. Garrow, W.P.T. James, eds.), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 200–63.Google Scholar
  34. Bonjour, I.-P. (1984) Biotin, in Handbook of Vitamins, ( L.J. Machlin, ed.), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 403–36.Google Scholar
  35. Bosset, J.O., Eberhard, P., Butikofer, U., et al. (1991) Evaluation of criteria of milk deterioration after various heat and mechanical treatments as well as light exposure of different durations. Part I. Vitamin C, Mitteilungen aus dem Gebeite der Lebensmitteluntersuchung and Hygiene 82, 433–56.Google Scholar
  36. Bosset, J.O., Butikofer, U., Fuchs, D., Imhof, M.I., Tagliaferri, E., Marchiando, C., Bruttel, P. (1992) Overview and comparison of some titrimetric and HPLC methods for the determination of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid in milk, Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg., 83 (2), 173–96.Google Scholar
  37. Bradley Jr, R.L. (1980) Effect of light on alteration of nutritional value and flavour of milk: a review, J. Food Protect., 43, 314–20.Google Scholar
  38. Brattström, L., Israelsson, B., Norving, B., et al. (1990) Impaired homocysteine metabolism in early-onset cerebral and peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Effects of pyridoxine and folic acid treatment, Atherosclerosis, 81, 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Brin, M. (1962) Erythrocyte transketolase in early thiamin deficiency, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 98, 528–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Brinkmann, E., Oei, H.B., Dehne, L., et al. (1993) Influence of heating on vitamin A content and vitamin A activity in liver and milk, Vitamine and weitere Zusatzstoffe bei Mensch and Tier: 4, Symposium 30.9./01.10. 1993, Jena, Thuringen (G. Flachowsky and R. Schubert, eds.), pp. 44–48.Google Scholar
  41. Burton, G.W. (1989) Antioxidant action of carotenoids, J. Nutr., 119, 109–11.Google Scholar
  42. Burton, G.W., Traber (1990) Vitamin E: antioxidant activity, biokinetics, and bioavailability, Annu. Rev. Nutr., 10, 357–82.Google Scholar
  43. Cancela, L., Le Boulch, N., Miravet, L. (1986) Relationship between the vitamin D content of maternal milk and the vitamin D status of nursing women and breast-fed infants, J. Endocrinol., 110, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Carter, E.G.A., Carpenter, K.J. (1982) The bioavailability for humans of bound niacin from wheat bran, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 36, 855–61.Google Scholar
  45. Chapman, H.R., Ford, J.E., Kon, S.K., et al. (1967) Further studies of the effect of processing on some vitamins of the B complex in milk, J. Dairy Res., 34, 191–7.Google Scholar
  46. Christenson, R.H., Dent, G.A. and Tuszynski, A. (1985) Two radioassays for serum vitamin B12 and folate determination compared in a reference interval study, Clin. Chem., 31, 1358–60.Google Scholar
  47. Colugnato, L. (1985) Determination of riboflavin in foods, Boll. Chim. Igienisti, 53, 83–97.Google Scholar
  48. Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA, 1991 ) Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  49. Coors, U., Montag, A. (1985) Tocopherol content of milk fat. I. Determination of tocopherol in butter, Milchwissenschaft, 40, 470–3.Google Scholar
  50. Cooper, B.A., Rosenblatt, D.S. (1987) Inherited defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, Annu. Rev. Nutr., 7, 291–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Coverly, S.C., Macrae, R. (1989) Determination of vitamin A in milk products by HPLC with automated on-line sample preparation, J. Micronutr. Anal., 5, 15–24.Google Scholar
  52. Dalton, K., Dalton, M.J.T. (1987) Characteristics of pyridoxine overdose neuropathy syndrome, Acta Neurol. Scand., 76, 8–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Davies, R.E., Icke, G.C. (1983) Thiamin, Adv. Clin. Chem., 23, 93–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Davies, H.E.F., Davies, J.E.W., Hughes, R.E., Jones, E. (1984) Studies on the absorption of L-ascorbic (vitamin C) in young and elderly subjects, Hum. Nutr. Clin. Nutr., 38C, 463–78.Google Scholar
  55. Delgado-Zamarreno, M.M., Sanchez-Perez, A., Gomez-Perez, C. and Hernandez-Mendez, J. (1992) High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the simultaneous determination of vitamin A, D3 and E in milk, J. Chromatogr., 623, 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. DeMan, J. deMan, L., Wygerde, T. (1986) Stability of vitamin A beadlets in nonfat dry milk, Milchwissenschaft, 41 468–9.Google Scholar
  57. Demel, S., Steiner, I., Washuettl, J., Kroyer, G. (1990) Chemical and microbiological studies on microwave-treated milk, Z. Ernaehrungswiss., 29, 299–303.Google Scholar
  58. De Souza, S.C., Eitenmiller, R.R. (1986) Folate content of selected dairy products and infant formulas, J. Dairy Sci., 69, 223.Google Scholar
  59. Dmitriev, V.A., Nersesova, V.P. (1991) Physiological-hygienic evaluation of vitamin C content of raw milk and infant formulae from “kitchens”, Gig. Sanit., 2, 34–35.Google Scholar
  60. Dolfini, L., Kueni, R. (1991) Über das Verhalten von zugesetzten Vitaminen während der Lagerung von UHT-Magermilch, Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg., 82, 187–98.Google Scholar
  61. Drevon, C.A. (1991) Absorption, transport and metabolism of vitamin E, Free Radical Res. Commun., 14, 229–46.Google Scholar
  62. Duthie, G. (1993) Vitamin E (tocopherols), in Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 9th edn, ( J.S. Garrow, W.P.T. James, eds), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 200–63.Google Scholar
  63. Dyachenko, L., Lysenko, V., Avramenko, I. (1985) Effect of ration cobalt on the vitamin B12 content of blood and milk of high-yielding cows, Molochn. Myasn. Skotovod., 1, 21–2.Google Scholar
  64. Echols, R.E., Miller, R.H. and Foster, W. (1986) Analysis of thiamine in milk by gas chromatography and the nitrogen-phosphorus detector, J. Dairy Sci., 69, 1246–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Eitenmiller, R.R., Bryan, W.D., Khalsa, I.K. et al. (1984) Folate content of human milk during early lactation stages, Nutr. Res., 4, 391–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ek, M., Magnus, E.M. (1982) Plasma and red cell folate values and folate requirements in formula-fed termed infants, J. Pediatr., 100, 738–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ellenbogen, L. (1984) Vitamin B12, in Handbook of Vitamins, ( L.J. Machlin, ed.), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 497–548.Google Scholar
  68. Ellerbe, P., Sniegoski, L.T., Miller, J.M., White, E.V. (1988) An isotope dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method for the determination of vitamin C in milk, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand., 93, 367–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Erb, F., Brice, A., Lhopitault, J.C., Seka, N.A. (1981) Evolution de la teneur vitaminique du lait maternel au cours des traitements de pasteurisation et de congelation pratiques en lactarium, Ann. Falsif. Expert. Chim., 74, 105–18.Google Scholar
  70. Erzinkyan, L.A., Akopova, A.B., Tsibulskaya, M.I., Pomortseva, N.V. (1984) Vitamin-synthesizing activity of lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt, Biol. Zh. Arm., 37, 847–50.Google Scholar
  71. Fanelli, A.J., Burlew, J.W., Gabriel, M.K. (1985) Protection of milk packaged in high density polyethylene against photodegradation by fluorescent light, J. Food Protect., 48, 112–17.Google Scholar
  72. Farah, Z., Rettenmaier, R., Atkins, D. (1992) Vitamin content of camel milk, Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res., 62, 30–3.Google Scholar
  73. Farquharson, J.,Adams, J.F. (1976) The forms of vitamin B12 in foods, Br. J. Nutr., 36, 127–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fellman, R.L., Dimick, P.S., Hollender, R. (1991) Photooxidative stability of vitamin A fortified 2% lowfat milk and skim milk, J. Food Protect., 54, 11316.Google Scholar
  75. Ferretti, L., Lelli, M.E., Miuccio, C., Ragni, C. (1970) Variazioni quantitative di alcune vitamine nel latte U.H.T. durante la conservazione, Quad. Nutr., 30, 124–33.Google Scholar
  76. Finglas, P.M., Faulks, R.M., Morris, H.C., et al. (1988) The development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA for the analysis of pantothenic acid and analogues, part II, Determination of pantothenic acid in foods, J. Micronutr. Anal., 4, 47–60.Google Scholar
  77. Fink, R., Kessler, H.G. (1985) Reaction kinetics study of thiamine losses in stored UHT milk, Milchwissenschaft, 40, 709–12.Google Scholar
  78. Fink, R., Kessler, H.G. (1986) Reaction kinetics evaluation of the oxidative changes in stored ultra-high temperature milk, Milchwissenschaft, 41, 90–4.Google Scholar
  79. Ford, J.E., Porter, J.W.G., Thompson, S.Y., et al. (1969a) Effects of ultra-hightemperature (UHT) processing and of subsequent storage on the vitamin content of milk, J. Dairy Res., 36, 447–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ford, J.E., Salter, P.N., Scott, K.J. (1969b) The folate-binding protein in milk, J. Dairy Res., 36, 435–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ford, J.E., Scott, K.J., Sansom, B.F., Taylor, P.J. (1975) Some observations on the possible nutritional significance of vitamin B12 and folate binding proteins in milk. Absorption of (58Co)cyanocobalamin by suckling piglets, Br. J. Nutr., 34, 469–92.Google Scholar
  82. Fournier, B., Sann, L., Guillaumont, M., Leclercq, M. (1987) Variations of phylloquinone concentration in human milk at various stages of lactation and in cow’s milk at various seasons, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 45, 551–8.Google Scholar
  83. Fox, H.M. (1984) Pantothenic acid, in Handbook of Vitamins, ( L.I. Machlin, ed.), Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, pp. 437–58.Google Scholar
  84. Fussnegger, B. (1988) Vitamine und Provitamine: ihre Stabilität in Milch und Milchprodukten, Dtsche. Molkerei-Ztg., 16, 476–82.Google Scholar
  85. Gallo-Torres, H.E. (1980) Absorption, transport and metabolism, in Vitamin E: A Comprehensive Treatise, ( L.J. Machlin, ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 170–267.Google Scholar
  86. Gauch, R. Leuenberger, U., Muller, U. (1992) Determination of the water-soluble vitamins BI, B2, B6 and B12 in milk by HPLC, Z. Lebensm, Unters. Forsch.,195 312–15.Google Scholar
  87. Gaylord, A.M., Warthesen, J.J., Smith D.E. (1986) Influence of milk fat solids and light intensity on the light stability of vitamin A and riboflavin in lowfat milk, J. Dairy Sci., 69, 2779–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ghitis, J. (1967) The folate binding in milk, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 20, 1–4.Google Scholar
  89. Givas, J.K., Gutcho, S. (1975) pH dependence of the binding of folates to milk binder in radioassay of folates, Clin. Chem., 21, 427–8.Google Scholar
  90. Glusman, M. (1947) The syndrome of “burning feet” (nutritional melagia) as a manifestation of nutritional deficiency, Am. J. Med., 3, 211–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Glynn, S.A., Albanes, D. (1994) Folate and cancer: a review of the literature, Nutr. Cancer, 22, 101–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Goldsmith, S.J., Eitenmiller, R.R., Toledo, R.T., Barnhart, H.M. (1983) Effects of processing and storage on the water-soluble vitamin content of human milk, J. Food Sci., 48, 994–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Goodman, D.S. (1984) Overview of current knowledge of metabolism of vitamin A and carotenoids, J. Nat. Cancer Inst., 73, 1375–9.Google Scholar
  94. Goussault, B., Gagnepain, M.F., Luquet, F.M. (1978) Contribution a l’etude de quelques vitamines du lait pasteurise en fonction du conditionnement et du mode de stockage, Rev. Laitiere Fr., 361, 69–72.Google Scholar
  95. Gregory III J.F., Sartain, D.B., Day, B.P.F. (1984) Fluorometric determination of folacin in biological materials using high performance liquid chromatography, J. Nutr.,114 341–53.Google Scholar
  96. Gullberg, R. (1973) Possible influence of vitamin B12-binding protein in milk on the intestinal flora in breast-fed infants. I B12-binding proteins in humans and bovine milk, Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 8, 497–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Görner, F., Uherova, R. (1980a) Retention von einigen Vitaminen während der Ultrahocherhitzung von Milch, Nahrung, 24 (8), 713–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Görner, F., Uherova, R. (1980b) Vitaminveränderungen der H-Milch während der Langerung. Nahrung, 24 (4/5), 373–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Haddad, G.S., Loewenstein, M. (1983) Effect of several heat treatments and frozen storage on thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid content of milk, J. Dairy Sci., 66, 1601–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Halliwell, B.,Gutteridge, I.M.C. (1988) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  101. Halsted, C. (1993) Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin), in Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 9th edn., ( J.S. Garrow and W.P.T. James, eds.), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 244–9.Google Scholar
  102. Hamzawi, L.E. (1990) Role of phopholipids and y-tocopherol as natural antioxidants in buffalo butterfat, Milchwissenchaft, 45, 95–7.Google Scholar
  103. Hansen, A.P., Turner, L.G., Aurand, L.W. (1975) Fluorescent light-activated flavour in milk, J. Milk Food Technol., 38, 338–92.Google Scholar
  104. Haroon, Y., Shearer, M.J., Rahim, S., et al. (1982) The content of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in human milk, cow’s milk and infant formula foods determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, J. Nutr., 112, 1105–17.Google Scholar
  105. Harzer, G., Haschke, F. (1989) Micronutrients in human milk, in Micro-nutrients in Milk and Milk-based Food Products, ( E. Renner, ed.). Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, London, pp. 125–238.Google Scholar
  106. Hawkes, J.G., Villota, R. (1989) Folates in foods: reactivity, stability during processing, and nutritional implications, CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 28, 438–538.Google Scholar
  107. Heinrich, H.C., Gabbe, E.E. (1990) Experimental basis of oral and parenteral therapy with cyano-and aquacobalamin. Biomedicine and physiology of vitamin B12, The Children’s Medical Charity, London.Google Scholar
  108. Henderson, L.M. (1984) Vitamin B6, in Present Knowledge in Nutrition,5th edn., (R.E. Olson et al.,eds.), Nutrition Foundation, Washington, DC, pp. 303–17.Google Scholar
  109. Herbert, V. (1985) Vitamin B12, in Present Knowledge in Nutrition,5th edn., (R.E. Olson, et al.,eds), Nutrition Foundation, Washington, DC, pp. 347–64.Google Scholar
  110. Hirano, M., Honma, K., Daimatsu, T., et al. (1991) The levels of biotin and biotinidase in bovine milk, Anim. Sci. Technol., 62, 1048–54.Google Scholar
  111. Hollander, D. (1981) Intestinal absorption of vitamins A, E, D and K., J. Lab. Clin. Med., 97, 449–62.Google Scholar
  112. Hollander, D., Dadufalza, V. (1989) Lymphatic and portal absorption of vitamin E in ageing rats, Dig. Dis. Sci., 34, 768–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hollander, D.E., Rim, E., Ruble, P.E. (1977) Vitamin K2 colonic acid ileal in vivo absorption: bile fatty acids and pH effect of transport, Am. J. Physiol., 233, E124–9.Google Scholar
  114. Holmberg, I., Aksnes, L., Berlin, T., et al. (1990) Absorption of a pharmacological dose of vitamin D3 from two different lipid vehicles in man: comparison of peanut oil and a medium chain triglyceride, Biopharmacol. Drug Disposition, 11, 807–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Holt, D.L., Wehling, R.L., Zeece, M.G. (1987) Analysis of folates in various processed dairy foods at biological levels with high-performance liquid-chromatography, J. Dairy Sci., 70, 59.Google Scholar
  116. Holt, D.L., Wehling, R.L., Zeece, M.G. (1988) Determination of native folates in milk and other dairy products by high-performance liquid chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 449, 271–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hood, R.L. (1987) The biotin content of infant foods, Nutr. Rep. Int., 36, 103942.Google Scholar
  118. Hoppner, K., Lampi, B. (1990) Total folate, pantothenic acid and biotin content of yoghurt products, Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J., 23, 223–5.Google Scholar
  119. Hoppner, K., Lampi, B. (1992) Biotin content of cheese products, Food Res. Int., 25, 41–3.Google Scholar
  120. Hornig, D. (1975) Distribution of ascorbic acid, metabolites and analogues in man and animals, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 258, 103–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Horst, R.L., Goff, J.P., Reinhardt, T.A. (1990) Advancing age results in reduction of intestinal and bone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor, Endocrinology, 126, 1053–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Horwitt, M.K., Harvey, C.C., Hills, O.W., Liebert, E. (1950) Correlation of urinary excretion of riboflavin with dietary intake and symptoms of ariboflavinosis, J. Nutr., 41, 247–64.Google Scholar
  123. Horwitt, M.K., Harper, A.E.,Henderson, I.M. (1981) Niacin-tryptophan relationships for evaluating niacin equivalents, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 34, 423–7.Google Scholar
  124. Hoskin, J.C., Dimick, P.S. (1979) Evaluation of fluorescent light on flavour and riboflavin content of milk held in gallon returnable containers, J. Food Protect., 42, 105–9.Google Scholar
  125. Ilie, D.B., Ashoor, S.H. (1988) Stability of vitamins A and C in fortified yoghurt, J. Dairy Sci., 71, 1492–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Indyk, H.E. (1988a) Liquid chromatographic study of vitamin K1 degradation: possible nutritional implications in milk, Milchwissenschaft, 43, 503–7.Google Scholar
  127. Indyk, H.E. (1988b) Simplified saponification procedure for the routine determination of total vitamin E in dairy products, foods and tissues by high performance liquid chromatography, Analst, 113, 1217–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Indyk, H.E., Lawrence, R., Broda, D. (1993) The micronutrient content of bovine whole milk powder: influence of pasture feeding and season, Food Chem., 46, 389–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ivanska, S., Pysera, B., Rybitska, M., et al. (1989) Content of beta-carotene and retinol in colostrum and milk of cows given feeds enriched with synthetic (3-carotene and vitamin preparations, Skh. Biol., 6, 25–9.Google Scholar
  130. Jaffe, G.M. (1984) Vitamin C, in Handbook of Vitamins. Nutritional, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects, (L.J. Machlin, ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 199244.Google Scholar
  131. Jansson, L. (1982) Quantitative determination of tocopherols with special reference to the vitamin E requirements of low birth weight infants, Diss. Abstr. Int. C Eur. Abstr., 43, 547.Google Scholar
  132. Jensen, G.K. (1983) UHT-produkternes kvalitet — organoleptiske egenskaber og ernaeringsvaerdi, Maelkeritidende, 96, 320–7.Google Scholar
  133. Jonsson, L. (1991) Thermal degradation of carotenes and influence on their physiological functions, in Nutritional and Toxicological Consequences of Food Processing, ( M. Friedman, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 75–82.Google Scholar
  134. Kaholn, T.S., Chow, F.I., Hoefer, J.L., Betschart, A.A. (1986) Bioavailability of vitamins A and E as influenced by wheat bran and bran particle size, Cereal Chem., 63, 490–3.Google Scholar
  135. Kallner, A., Hartmann, D., Hornig, D. (1977) On the absorption of ascorbic acid in man, Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res., 47, 383–8.Google Scholar
  136. Kamei, T., Sato, J., Sugimoto, Y., et al. (1990) Study on the microbiological assay for vitamin B12 of cow’s UHT milk and infant formula using Lactobacillus leichmannii, Proc XXIII Int. Dairy Congr. (Montreal), Brief Commun., I p. 135.Google Scholar
  137. Kanno, C., Shirahuji, K., Hoshi, T. (1991) Simple method for determination of three flavins in bovine milk by high performance liquid chromatography, J. Food Sci., 56, 678–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Karlin, R. (1969) Sur la tenur en folates des laits de grand malange. Effects de divers traitement thermiques sur les taux de folates, B12 et B6 de ces lait, J. Int. Vitaminol., 39, 359–71.Google Scholar
  139. Khamagaeva, I.S., Kukikova, A.K., Tikhomirova, A.S. (1986) Content of vitamins in acidophilus milk with hydrolysed lactose, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Pishch. Tekhnol., 6, 99–101.Google Scholar
  140. Knapen, M.H.J. Hamulyak, K. and Vermeer, C. (1989) The effect of vitamin K supplementation on circulating osteocalcin (bone gla-protein) and urinary calcium excretion, Ann. Intern. Med.,111 1001–5.Google Scholar
  141. Kneifel, W. (1986) HPLC fluorimetric determination of riboflavin in milk, Dtsche. Molk. Ztg., 107, 212–13, 216.Google Scholar
  142. Kneifel, W. (1989a) Milk powders storage stability, Milchwissenschaft, 44, 697700.Google Scholar
  143. Kneifel, W. (1989b) Storage stability of full-cream milk powder with special regard to vitamin content. I. Physico-chemical parameters and results from provocation stests, Milchwissenschaft, 44, 607–11.Google Scholar
  144. Kneifel, W., Sommer, R. (1985) A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of vitamin C in milk, whey and whey beverages, Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 181, 107–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Kneifel, W., Sommer, R. (1986a) Bestimmung von Thiamin in Milch and Milchprodukten mittels HPLC, Ernärung, 10, 459–64.Google Scholar
  146. Kneifel, W., Sommer, R. (1986b) Zum lagerungsbedingten Abbau einiger wasseröslicher Vitamine in Haltbarmilch, Österr. Milchwirtsch., 41, 79–87.Google Scholar
  147. Koh, Y. (1986) Vitamin A and carotenoids study in milk and serum, Diss. Abstr. Int. B. Sci. Eng., 46, 2630.Google Scholar
  148. Kozik, A. (1994) Competitive protein-binding radioassay of thiamine in selected biological materials, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods, 28, 147–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Kurata, T., Sakurai, Y. (1967) Degradation of L-ascorbic acid and mechanism of nonenzymatic browning reaction. Part II. Nonoxidative degradation of L-ascorbic acid including the formation of 3-deoxy-L-pentosone, Agric. Biol. Chem., 31, 170–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Kurmann, A., Indyk, H. (1994) The endogenous vitamin D content of bovine milk: influence of season, Food Chem., 50, 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Landen, W.O. Jr. (1985) Liquid chromatographic determination of vitamins D2 and D3 in fortified milk and infant formulas, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 68, 183–7.Google Scholar
  152. Larsen, J., Jensen, F.H., Wernre, H. (1985) Content of vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D and E and folacin in market milk products, Beret. Statens Mejeriforsog, 264, 32.Google Scholar
  153. Lau, B.L.T., Kakuda, Y., Arnott, D.R. (1986) Effect of milk fat on the stability of vitamin A in ultra-high temperature milk, J. Dairy Sci., 69, 2052–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Laukkanen, M., Antila, P., Antila, V. (1988) The water-soluble vitamin content of Finnish liquid milk products, Meijeritiet. Aikak., XLVI, 7–24.Google Scholar
  155. Lavigne, C., Zee, J.A., Simard, R.E., Gosselin, C. (1987) High-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array determination of ascorbic acid, thiamine and riboflavine in goats’ milk, J. Chromatogr., 410, 201–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Lawson, D.E.M. (1980) Metabolism of vitamin D, in Vitamin D: Molecular Biology and Clinical Nutrition, ( A.W. Norman, ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  157. LeMaguer, I., Jackson, H. (1983) Stability of vitamin A in pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed milks, J. Dairy Sci., 66, 2451–8.Google Scholar
  158. Li, L.P., Chen, W.L., Cui, J.T. (1993) The determination of vitamin B1, B2, in fortified milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Chin. J. Chromatogr., 11, 49–50.Google Scholar
  159. Lindenbaum, J. (1987) Hematologic complications of alcohol abuse, Semin. Liver Dis., 7, 169–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Loveridge, N. (1993) Vitamin D (calciferols), in Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 9th edn., (J.S. Garrow and W.P.T. James, eds), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 200–63.Google Scholar
  161. Maniere, F.Y., Dimick, P.S. (1976) Effect of fluorescent light on reparition of riboflavin in homogenized milk, J. Dairy Sci., 59, 2019–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Margolis, S.A., Black, I. (1987) Stabilization of ascorbic acid and its measurement by liquid chromatography in nonfat dry milk, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 70, 806–9.Google Scholar
  163. Martin, J.I., Landen, Jr. W.O., Soliman, A.G.M., Eitenmiller, R.R. (1990) Application of a tri-enzyme extraction of total folate determination in foods, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. Intern., 73, 805–8.Google Scholar
  164. Mason, J.B., Gibson, N., Kodicek, E. (1973) The chemical nature of the bound nicotinic acid of wheat bran: studies of nicotinic acid-containing macromolecules, Br. J. Nutr., 30, 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Matthey, M., Flachowsky, E., Graf, H., et al. (1991) Influence of season and management of vitamin A and vitamin E content of cow milk, in Vitamine and weitere Zusatzstoffe bei Mensch und Tier. 3. Symposium, Jena, 26.127 (G. Flachowsky, F. Schone and A. Hennig, eds. ), pp. 192–5.Google Scholar
  166. McCarthy, D.A., Kakuda, Y., Arnott, D.R. (1986) Vitamin A stability in ultrahigh temperature processed milk, J. Dairy Sci., 69, 2045–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. McCormick, D.B. (1988a) Thiamin, in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, ( M.E. Shils and V.R. Young, eds.), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 376–82.Google Scholar
  168. McCormick, D.B. (1988b) Riboflavin, in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, ( M. Shils and V.R. Young, eds), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 362–9.Google Scholar
  169. McCormick, D.H. (1988c) Vitamin B6, in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, ( M.E. Shils and V.R. Young, eds), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 3.Google Scholar
  170. McCormick, D.H. (1988d) Biotin, in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, ( M.E. Shils and V.R. Young, eds), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 436–9.Google Scholar
  171. McCormick, D.B. (1989) Two interconnected B vitamins: riboflavin and pyridoxine, Physiol. Rev., 69, 170–98.Google Scholar
  172. McLaren, D.S. (1993) Vitamin A (retinol), in Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 9th edn, ( J.S. Garrow and W.P.T. James, eds.), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 200–63.Google Scholar
  173. Mehaia, M.A. (1990) Effect of heat treatment on vitamin C content of camel milk, Proc. XXIIIInt. Dairy Congr., (Montreal), Brief Commun, II, 453.Google Scholar
  174. Milunsky, A., Jick, H., Jick, S.S., et al. (1989) Multivitamin/folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 262, 2847–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Mohammad, K.S., Al-Talib, N.A., Al-Kashab, L.A. (1990) Some water-soluble vitamins in different types of milk and their stabilities towards light and oxygen, Egyp. J. Dairy Sci., 18, 37–44.Google Scholar
  176. Mottar, J., Naudts, M. (1979) La qualite du lait chauffe a ultra-haut temperature comparee a celle du lait pasteurise et sterilise dans la bouteille, Laite, 59, 476–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Muhammed, K., Briggs, D., Jones. (1993) Comparison of a competitive binding assay with Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 assay for the determination of vitamin B12 in foods, Food Chem., 48, 431–4.Google Scholar
  178. Muller, H. (1993) Determination of folic acid content in foods of animal origin by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 196, 518–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Munoz, A., Ortiz, R., Murcia, M.A. (1994) Determination of HPLC of changes in riboflavin levels in milk and nondairy imitation milk during refrigerated storage, Food Chem., 49, 203–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Murata, A. (1991) Smoking and vitamin C, World Rev. Nutr. Diet, 64, 31–57.Google Scholar
  181. Nakai, S., Amantea, G., Eugster, K., et al. (1983) Vitamin A and haylike flavour in non fat dry milk and pasteurized low fat milks, Can. Inst. Food Sci. Techol. J., 16, 116–22.Google Scholar
  182. Napoli, J.L., Race, K.R. (1987) The biosynthesis of retinoic acid from retinol by rat tissue in vitro, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 255, 95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Nelson, E.M. (1956) Association of vitamin B6 deficiency with convulsions in infants, Public Health Rep., 71, 445–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Nicolas, E.C., Pfender, K.A. (1990) Fast and simple liquid chromatographic determination of nonphosphorylated thiamine in infant formula milk and other foods, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 73, 792–8.Google Scholar
  185. Oamen, E.E., Hansen, A.P., Swartzel, K.R. (1989) Effect of ultra-high temperature stream injection processing and aseptic storage of labile water-soluble vitamins in milk, J. Dairy Sci., 72, 614–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Okano, T. (1992) Possible roles of vitamin D transport proteins in the expression of biological activities of vitamin D, Vitamins (KYOTO), 66, 65–78.Google Scholar
  187. O’Keefe, S.F., Murphy, P.A. (1988) Rapid determination of vitamin D in fortified skim milk, J. Chromatogr., 445, 305–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Omaye, S.T., Chow, F.I. (1984) Effect of hard red spring wheat bran on the bioavailability of lipid-soluble vitamins and growth of rats fed for 56 days, J. Food Sci., 49, 504–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Packer, L. (1991) Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 53, 1050S - 1055S.Google Scholar
  190. Padh, D. (1991) Vitamin C: newer insights into its biochemical functions, Nutr. Rev., 49, 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Perez Ruiz, T. Martinez Lozano, C., Thomas, V. (1987) Microdetermination of riboflavin and riboflavin 5’-phosphate by a catalytic photokinetic method, Anal. Chim. Acta,198 63–9.Google Scholar
  192. Pihlanto-Leppala, A., Maki, M., Antila, V. (1991) Comparative study on the transport of milk as raw milk and as packaged pasteurized milk. III. The vitamin C and riboflavin content of milk at various stages of the process, Tiedotteita Commun. Maatalouden Tutkimuskeskus Elintarvikkeiden Tutkimuslaitos, 4, 9.Google Scholar
  193. Porter, J.W.G., Thompson, S.Y. (1969) The effect of heat treatment on the nutritive quality of liquid milk, with particular reference to UHT processes, DECHEMA — Monogr., 63, 233–41.Google Scholar
  194. Ralph, A. (1993) Appendix 2: Dietary reference values, in Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 9th edn., ( J.S. Garrow and W.P.T. James, eds.), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 785–90.Google Scholar
  195. Razagui, I.B., Barlow, P.J., Taylor, K.D.A. (1992) A spectrofluorimetric procedure for the determination of alpha-tocopherol in nutritional supplement products, Food Chem., 44, 221–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Rees, D.I. (1989) Determination of nicotinamide and pyridoxine in fortified food products by HPLC, J. Micronutr. Anal., 5, 53–61.Google Scholar
  197. Reeve, L.E., Chesney, R.W., DeLuca, H.F. (1982) Vitamin D of human milk: identification of biologically active forms, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 36, 122–6.Google Scholar
  198. Reichel, H. Koffler, H.P., Norman, A.W. (1989) The role of the vitamin D endocrine system in health and disease, N. Engl. J. Med.,320 980–91.Google Scholar
  199. Reisenauer, A.M., Krumdieck, C.L., Halststed, C.H. (1977) Folate conjugase: two separate activities in human jejunum, Sciences, 198, 196–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Renken, S.A., Warthesen, J.J. (1993) Vitamin D stability in milk, J. Food Sci., 58, 552–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Renner, E. (1981a) Qualität von ultrahocherhitzter Milch im Vergleich zur pasteurisierten Milch, Verbraucherdienst, 26, 248–51.Google Scholar
  202. Renner, E. (198 l b) Untersuchungen uber die Wetigheit von eranhrungsphysiologische pasteurisierter Milch in unterschiedlichen Packungen, Dtsche. Milchwirtsch., 32, 853–4.Google Scholar
  203. Renner, E., Schaafsma, G.,Scott, K.J. (1989) Micronutrients in milk, in Micronutrients in Milk and Milk-based Food Products, ( E. Renner, ed.), Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., London, pp. 1–70.Google Scholar
  204. Renken, S.A., Warthesen, J.J. (1993) Vitamin D stability in milk, J. Food Sci., 58, 552–6, 566.Google Scholar
  205. Ribarova, F., Shishkov, S., Obretenova, N.,Metchkueva, L. (1987) Comparative determination of riboflavin in milk by HPLC and lumiflavin methods, Nahrung 31, 77–9.Google Scholar
  206. Rose, R.C. (1988) Transport of ascorbic acid and other water-soluble vitamins, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 947, 336–66.Google Scholar
  207. Roth Maier, D., Kirchgessner, M. (1987) Concentration of vitamin B-6 and pantothenic acid in sow’s milk during lactation, J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 59, 146–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Roughead, Z.K., McCormick, D.B. (1990) Qualitative and quantitative assessment of flavins in cow’s milk, J. Nutr. (USA), 120, 382–8.Google Scholar
  209. Sadoogh-Abasian, F., Evered, D.F. (1980) Absorption of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide from rat small intestine in vitro, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 598, 385-Google Scholar
  210. Sadowski, J. Bacon, D., Hood, S., et al. (1988) The application of methods used for the evaluation of vitamin K nutritional status in human and animal studies, in Current Advances in Vitamin K Research,(J.W. Suttle, ed.), Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Amsterdam, pp. 453–63.Google Scholar
  211. Said, H.M., Redha, R. (1988) Biotin transport in rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles, Biochim, Biophys. Acta, 945, 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Said, H.M., Home, D.W., Wagner, C. (1986) Effect of human milk folate binding protein on folate intestinal transport, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 251, 114–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Sauberlich, H.E. (1994) Pharmacology of vitamin C, Annu. Rev. Nutr., 14, 371-Google Scholar
  214. Sawaya, W.N., Khalil, J.K., Al-Shalhat, A.F. (1984) Mineral and vitamin content of goat’s milk, J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 84, 433–5.Google Scholar
  215. Sawaya, W.N., Khalil, J.K., Ai Shalhat, A.F. and Al Mohammed, M.M. (1985) Mineral and vitamins contents of sheep milk, Milchwissenschaft, 40, 81–3.Google Scholar
  216. Schaafsma, G. (1989) Effects of Heat Treatment on the Nutritional Value of Milk, Bulletin 238, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 68–70.Google Scholar
  217. Schaus, E.E., de Lumen, B.O., Chow, F.I., et al. (1985) Bioavailability of vitamins E in rats fed graded levels of pectin, J. Nutr., 115, 263–70.Google Scholar
  218. Schneider, S.A., Warthesen, J.J. (1989) Stability of vitamin D in fluid milk, J. Dairy Sci., 72, 124.Google Scholar
  219. Schroeder, M.J.A., Scott, K.J., Bland, M.A., Bishop, D.R. (1985) Flavour and vitamin stability in pasteurized milk in polyethylene coated cartons and in polyethylene bottles, J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 38, 48–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Schneiderman, M.A., Sharma, A.K., Mahanama, K.R.R., Locke, D.C. (1988) Determination of vitamin K-1 in powdered infant formulas using supercritical fluid extraction and liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 71, 815–17.Google Scholar
  221. Scott, K.J. and Bishop, D.R. (1986) Nutrient content of milk and milk products: vitamins of the B complex and vitamin C in retail market milk and milk products, J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 39, 32–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Scott, K.J., Bishop, D.R., Zechalko, A., et al. (1984a) Nutrient content of liquid milk. I. Vitamins A, D3, C and of the B complex in pasteurized bulk liquid milk, J. Dairy Res., 51, 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Scott, K.J., Bishop, D.R., Zechalko, A., Edwards-Webb, J.D. (1984b) Nutrient content of liquid milk. II. Content of vitamin C, riboflavin, folic acid, thiamin, vitamins B12 and B6 in pasteurized milk as delivered to the home and after storage in the domestic refrigerator, J. Dairy Res., 51, 51–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Secomska, B., Nadolna, I. (1987) Effect of storage conditions on the stability of riboflavin in market milk and kefir, Przem. Spozw., 41, 320–2.Google Scholar
  225. Sertl, D.C., Molitor, B.E. (1985) Liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D in milk and infant formula, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 68, 17782.Google Scholar
  226. Shane, B., Tamura, T., Stokstad, E.L.R. (1980) Folate assay: a comparison of radioassay and microbiological methods, Clin. Chim. Acta, 100, 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Selhub, J., Powell, G.M., Rosenberg, I.H. (1984) Intestinal transport of 5methyltetrahydrofolate, Am. J. Physiol., 246, G515–20.Google Scholar
  228. Sharma, Y.K., Goyal, K.C., Misra, U.K. (1983) Vitamin A and RBP contents of milk of goats given a single massive dose of vitamin A orally, Nutr. Rep. Int., 28, 593–6.Google Scholar
  229. Shearer, M.J., Allan, V., Haroon, Y., Barkhan, P. (19974) Nutritional aspects of vitamin K in the human, in Vitamin K Metabolism and Vitamin K-dependent Proteins, (J.W. Suttle, ed.), University Press, Baltimore, pp. 317–27.Google Scholar
  230. Shearer, M.J., Allan, V., Haroon, Y., Barkhan, P. (1980) Nutritional aspects of vitamin K in the human, in Vitamin K Metabolism and Vitamin K-dependent Proteins ( J.W. Suttie, ed.), University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 317–27.Google Scholar
  231. Sikka, P., Narayan, R., Atheya, U.K. (1988) The riboflavin content of milk of Sahiwal, crossbred cows and Murrah buffaloes, Indian Vet Med. J., 12, 108–10.Google Scholar
  232. Singh, R., Deodhar, A.D. (1994) Relative bioavailability of riboflavin in cow’s milk and fermented milk using rat bioassay, Int. Dairy J., 4, 59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Singh, R.P., Heldman, D.R., Kirk, J.R. (1975) Kinetic analyses of light induced riboflavin loss in whole milk, Food Sci., 40, 164–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Stenflo, J., Fernlund, P., Egan, W., Roepstorff, P. (1974) Vitamin K-dependent modifications of glutamic residues in prothrombin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 71, 2730–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Suda, T., Shinki, T., Takahashi, N. (1990) The role of vitamin D in bone and intestinal cell differentiation, Annu. Rev. Nutr., 10, 195–211.Google Scholar
  236. Stancher, B.,Zonta, F. (1983) HPLC of fat-soluble vitamins in cheese. New method for determining the total biological activity of vitamins A and E, Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse, 60, 371–5.Google Scholar
  237. Swiatlo, N., O’Connor, D.L., Andrews, J.,Picciano, M.F. (1990) Relative folate bioavailability from diets containing human, bovine and goat milk, J. Nutr., 120, 172–7.Google Scholar
  238. Tadera, K., Naka, Y. (1991) Isocratic paired-ion high performance liquid chromatographic method to determine B6 vitamers and pyridoxine glucoside in foods, Agric. Biol. Chem., 55, 563–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Tagliaferri, E. (1989) The protective effect of packing material against photo-oxidation. IV. A study of the stability of vitamins A and B2 in various yoghurts during storage, Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg., 80, 77–86.Google Scholar
  240. Tagliaferri, E., Bosset, J.O. Eberhard, P., et al. (1992a) Evaluation of criteria of milk deterioration after various heat and mechanical treatments as well as light exposure of different durations. II. Determination of vitamin B1 using a newly developed RP-HPLC method, Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg., 83, 435–52.Google Scholar
  241. Tagliaferri, E., Sieber, R., Butikofer, U., et al. (1992b) Evaluation of criteria of milk deterioration after various heat and mechanical treatments as well as light exposure of different durations. III. Determination of vitamin B2 using a newly developed RP-HPLC method, Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg., 83, 46791Google Scholar
  242. Taher, M.M., Lakshmaiah, N. (1992) Folic acid stability in hydrogen peroxide-potassium thiocyanate treated milk, Food Chem., 44, 343–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Tannenbaum, S.R., Archer, M.C., Young, V.R. (1985) Vitamins and minerals, in Food Chemistry, ( O.R. Fennema, ed.), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 477–544.Google Scholar
  244. Tannenbaum, S.R., Wishnok, J.S., Leaf, C.D. (1991) Inhibition of nitrosamine formation by ascorbic acid, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 53, 247S - 250S.Google Scholar
  245. Tanner, I.T., Smith, I., Defibaugh, P., et al. (1988) Survey of vitamin content of fortified milk, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 71, 607–10.Google Scholar
  246. Tarr, J.B., Tamura, T., Stokstad, E.L.R. (1981) Availability of vitamin B6 and panthotenate in an average American diet in man, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 34, 132837.Google Scholar
  247. Thompson, J.N., Duval, S. (1990) Determination of vitamin A in milk and infant formula by HPLC, J. Micronutr. Anal., 6, 147–60.Google Scholar
  248. Toyosaki, T.,Hayashi, A. (1993) Structural analysis of the products of milk riboflavin photolysis, Milchwissenshaft, 48, 607–9.Google Scholar
  249. Toyosaki, T. Yamamoto, A., Mineshita, T. (1986) Simultaneous analysis of riboflavin and its decomposition products in various milks by high-performance liquid chromatography, J. Micronutr. Anal.,2 117–24.Google Scholar
  250. Traber, M.G., Kayden, H.J. (1989) Preferential incorporation of a-tocopherol vs y-tocoferol in human lipoproteins, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 49, 51726.Google Scholar
  251. Traber, M.G., Kayden, H.J., Balmer-Green, J., Green, M.H. (1986) Absorption of water-miscible forms of vitamin E in a patient with cholestasis and in thoracic duct-cannulated rats, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 44, 914–23.Google Scholar
  252. Tsang, R.C. (1983) The quandary of vitamin D in the newborn infant, Lancet, i, 1370–2.Google Scholar
  253. Tyler, T.A., Genzale, J.A. (1990) Liquid chromatographic determination of total niacin in beef, semolina and cottage cheese, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 73, 467–9Google Scholar
  254. Udipi, S.A., Kirksey, A.,Roepke, J.L.B. (1987) Diurnal variations in folacin levels of human milk: use of a single sample to represent folacin concentrations in milk during a 24-h period, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 45, 770–9.Google Scholar
  255. Underwood, B.A. (1984) Vitamin A in animal and human nutrition, in The Retinoids, (M.B. Sporn, A.B. Roberts, D.S. Goodman, eds.), Vol. 1, Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, pp. 281–392.Google Scholar
  256. van den Berg, H., Floor, B. (1990) Accuracy of the serum folate radioassay, in Recent Knowledge in Iron and Folate Deficiencies in the World, (S. Hercberg, P. Galan, H. Dupin, eds.), Colloque INSERM, 197, pp. 441–7.Google Scholar
  257. van den Berg, H., Boshuis, P.G., Schreurs, W.H.P. (1986) Determination of vitamin D in fortified and nonfortified milk powder and infant formula using a specific radioassay after purification by high-performance liquid chromatography, J. Agric. Food Chem., 34, 264–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. van den Berg, H. Heseker, H., Lamand, M., et al. (1993) FLAIR Concerted Action No 10 Status Papers. Introduction, Conclusions and Recommendations, Intern. Nutr. Res.,63 247–316.Google Scholar
  259. van Dokkum, W., de Vos, R.H. and Scrijver, J. (1990) Retinol, total carotenoids, B-carotene and tocopherols in total diets of male adolescents in the Netherlands, J. Agric. Food Chem., 38, 211–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. van Renterghem, R. (1984) Riboflavin (vitamin B2) contents of milk, Arch. Belg. Med. Soc. Hyg. Med. Tray. Med. Leg., 42, 339–48.Google Scholar
  261. Veena-Singh, Sharma, M.K. (1984) Factors influencing folate content and folate-binding capacity of milk, Asian J. Dairy Res., 3, 70–4.Google Scholar
  262. Wagner, C. (1985) Folate-binding proteins, Nutr. Rev., 43, 293–9.Google Scholar
  263. Wagner, K., Graf, H., Schaarmann, G., Flachowsky, G. (1993) Influence of cooking and microwave treatment on the vitamin A content of milk, Vitamine und weitere Zusatzstoffe bei Mensch und Tier: 4. Symposium 30.9/01.10. 1993 Jena (Thuringen) (G. Flachowsky and R. Shubert, eds. ), pp. 49–52.Google Scholar
  264. Walstra, P., Jenness, R. (1984) Dairy Chemistry and Physics, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  265. Weber, F. (1981) Absorption mechanism for fat-soluble vitamins and the effect of other food constituents, in Nutrition in Health and Disease and International Development, Proc. XII Int. Congr. Nutr., Alan R. Liss Inc., pp. 119–35.Google Scholar
  266. Velisek, J., Davidek, J., Mnukova, J., Pistek, T. (1986) Gas chromatographic determination of thiamin in foods, J. Micronutr. Anal., 2, 73–80.Google Scholar
  267. Vermeer, C. (1990) y-Carboxyglutamate-containing proteins and the vitamin K dependent carboxylase, Biochem. J., 266, 625–36.Google Scholar
  268. Viberg, U., Oste, R. (1995) Development and evaluation of a microscale apparatus for the generation of kinetic data at high temperatures, applied to the degradation of thiamine, Food Chem., 52, 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Vidal-Valverde, C., Reche, A. (1990a) Reliable system for the analysis of riboflavin in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection, J. Liquid Chromatogr., 13, 2089–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Vidal-Valverde, C., Reche, A. (1990b) An improved high performance liquid chromatographic method for thiamin analysis in foods, Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 191, 313–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Vidal-Valverde, C., Ruiz, R., Medrano, A. (1992) Stability of retinol in milk during frozen and other storage conditions, Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 195, 5625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. von Bayoumi, E.S., Reuter, H. (1985) Vitamin B1-Abbau während der UHT-Erhitzung von Vollmilch, Milchwissenschaft, 40, 713–16.Google Scholar
  273. von Kries, R. Shearer, M.J., McCarthy, P.T. et al. (1987) Vitamin K1 content of maternal milk: influence of the stage of lactation, lipid composition, and vitamin K supplement given to the mother, Paediatr. Res.,22 513–17.Google Scholar
  274. Wigertz, K., Jägerstad, M. (1993) Analysis and characterization of milk folates from raw; pasteurized; UHT-treated and fermented milk related to availability in vivo. Bioavailability ‘83 — Nutritional, Chemical and Food Processing Implications of Nutrient Availability, Part 2, ( U. Sclemmer, ed.), Bundesforschungsantalt für Ernährung, Karlsruhe, pp. 431–5.Google Scholar
  275. Wigertz, K., Jägerstad, M. (1995) Comparison of an HPLC and a radio protein binding assay for the determination of folates in milk and blood samples, Food Chem., 54 (4), 429–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Wolf, G. (1990) Recent progress in vitamin A research: nuclear retinoic acid receptors and their interaction with gene elements, J. Nutr. Biochem., 1, 284–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Wollard, D.C., Blott, A.D. (1986) The routine determination of vitamin E acetate in milk powder formulations using high-performance liquid chromatography, J. Micronutr. Anal., 2, 97–115.Google Scholar
  278. Wollard, D.C., Fairweather,J.P. (1985) The storage stability of vitamin A in fortified ultra-high temperature processed milk, J. Micronutr. Anal., 1, 13–21.Google Scholar
  279. Wollard, D.C., Indyk, H. (1986) The high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamin A isomers in dairy products and thier significance in biopotency estimations, J. Micronutr Anal., 2, 125–46.Google Scholar
  280. Wolliscroft, J.O. (1983) Megavitamins: fact or fancy, Disease-A-Month, 29, 7–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Ye, W., Liu, L., Li, H. (1992) The determination of the fat-soluble vitamins and beta-carotene in milk by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Chin. J. Chromatogr., 10, 240–1.Google Scholar
  282. Zahar, M., Smith, D.E., Wartheser, J.J. (1992) Effect of beta-carotene on vitamin A light stability in fortified milk, Int. Dairy J., 2, 363–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Öste
  • M. Jägerstad
  • I. Andersson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations