Metabolism, Mentation, and Behavior

  • Robert H. Williams

Abstract

The ultimate supreme function of the body is mentation, or thinking. Without mentation the body is of no significant use. Mentation plays the major role in all our pleasures and pains. The amounts and types of mental and physical behavior depend upon the body’s metabolism. All abnormalities in mentation are associated with altered metabolism. Metabolic changes lead to psychic alterations and vice versa; often this sort of multicyclic relationship occurs in the same individual. Moreover, metabolic or psychic abnormalities can lead to changes in other parts of the body which further influence the metabolic and psychic states. The chemical and/or physical status of the brain can be altered by many influences. These include abnormalities within the brain itself, disorders in other parts of the body, and such influences from outside the body as social, climatic, and nutritional factors. There often is an interplay among these factors. For example, certain genetic enzyme abnormalities in the brain can tremendously alter behavior and, in turn, lead to adverse environmental conditions; contrariwise, abnormal environmental factors can markedly influence behavior. Even a total lack of sleep for a week can make a normal person have hallucinations. Each endocrine gland function can influence mentation; mentation can influence each endocrine and other metabolic function.

Keywords

Depression Dopamine Histamine Tryptophan Choline 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bloom, F. E., and N. J. Giarman. 1968. Physiologic and pharmacologic considerations of biogenic amines in the nervous system. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 8: 229–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clinical Society of London Report on Myxedema. 1880. In Transactions of the Clinical Society of London. Vol. 21, suppl. London, Longmans, Green & Co.Google Scholar
  3. Cooper, J. R., F. E. Bloom, and R. H. Roth. 1970. The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. New York-London-Toronto, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Curtis, D. R., and J. C. Watkins. 1965. The pharmacology of amino acids related to gamma-aminobutyric acid. Pharmacol. Rev. 17: 347–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Denko, J. D., and R. Kaebling. 1962. The psychiatric aspects of hypoparathyroidism. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 38: 7–70.Google Scholar
  6. Iversen, L. L. 1967. The Uptake and Storage of Noradrenaline in Sympathetic Nerves. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Page 30.Google Scholar
  7. Jouvet, M. 1967. Neurophysiology of the States of Sleep. In The Neurosciences. G. C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk, and F. O. Schmitt, eds. New York, The Rockefeller University Press. Page 529.Google Scholar
  8. Kety, S. S. 1967. Psychoendocrine Systems and Emotion: Biological Aspects. In Neurophysiology and Emotion. D. C. Glass, ed. New York, The Rockefeller University Press and Russell Sage Foundation. Page 103.Google Scholar
  9. Kety, S. S. 1967. The Central Physiological and Pharmacological Effects of the Biogenic Amines and Their Correlations with Behavior. In The Neurosciences. G. C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk, and F. O. Schmitt, eds. New York, The Rockefeller University Press. Page 444.Google Scholar
  10. Koella, W. P. 1966. In Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity. O. Walaas, ed. London-New York, Academic Press. Page 431.Google Scholar
  11. Kopin, I. J. 1967. The Adrenergic Synapse. In The Neurosciences. G. C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk, and F. O. Schmitt, eds. New York, The Rockefeller University Press. Page 427.Google Scholar
  12. Kravitz, E. A. 1967. Acetylcholine, y-Aminobutyric Acid, and Glutamic Acid: Physiological and Chemical Studies Related to Their Roles as Neurotransmitter Agents. In The Neurosciences. G. C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk, and F. O. Schmitt, eds. New York, The Rockefeller University Press. Page 433.Google Scholar
  13. Nyhan, W. L. 1968. Clinical features of the Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome: Introduction—clinical and genetic features. Fed. Proc. 27: 1027–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Page, I. H., and A. Carlsson. 1970. Serotonin. In Handbook of Neurochemistry. A. Lajtha, ed. Vol. 4. New York, Plenum Press. Page 251.Google Scholar
  15. Pauling, L. 1968. Orthomolecular psychiatry. Science. 160: 265–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Petersen, P. J. 1968. Psychiatric disorders in primary hyperparathyroidism. Clin. Endocr. 28: 1491–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Plum, F., and J. B. Posner. 1966. Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma. Philadelphia, F. A. Davis Co.Google Scholar
  18. Potter, L. T. 1970. Acetylcholine, Choline Acetyltransferase and Acetyl-cholinesterase. In Handbook of Neurochemistry. A. Lajtha, ed. Vol. 4. New York, Plenum Press. Page 263.Google Scholar
  19. Rupp, C., ed. 1968. Mind as a Tissue. New York-Evanston-London, Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  20. Smith, D. E., M. B. King, and B. G. Hoebel. 1970. Lateral hypothalamic control of killing: evidence for a cholinoceptive mechanism. Science. 167: 900–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tower, D. B. 1969. Neurochemical Mechanisms. In Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies. H. H. Jasper, A. A. Ward, Jr., and A. Pope, eds. Boston, Little, Brown and Co. Page 611.Google Scholar
  22. Williams, R. H. 1970. Metabolism and mentation. J. Clin. Endocr. 31:461–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Woolley, D. W. 1967. Involvement in the Hormone Serotonin in Emotion and Mind. In Neurophysiology and Emotion. D. C. Glass, ed. New York, The Rockefeller University Press and Russell Sage Foundation. Page 108.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert H. Williams

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations