The motion of the universe is not assigned a fixed score. Nature orchestrates motion in a far more graceful manner with the action principle. According to the action principle, the motion of the universe is free save for this requirement: in their movement between any two points in space and time, particles of matter take, from the infinite number of possible paths, just those for which their action has the least possible value. From this simple principle come the planetary orbits of heavenly bodies and the structure of chemical elements.
KeywordsAngular Momentum Phase Space Poisson Bracket Canonical Transformation Hamilton Equation
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