Pseudoephedrine Effects on Milk Production in Women and Estimation of Infant Exposure via Human Milk
There have been numerous anecdotal reports that pseudoephedrine use results in decreased milk production (Anderson 2000). This study was carried out to determine milk production, plasma prolactin levels, blood flow to the breast, and milk levels of pseudoephedrine following a maternal dose of 60 mg. Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine (alpha-adrenoceptor agonist) that enjoys wide use as a nasal mucous membrane and sinus decongestant. The drug has been detected in the milk of three nursing mothers (at 3, 3, and 18 months of lactation) after ingestion of a single dose of a combined pseudoephedrine HC1 60 mg /triprolidine HC1 2.5 mg tablet (Findlay et al. 1984). The average concentration in milk over 24 hours was 264 µg/L. Although milk production was not measured, it was calculated that this would correspond to a relative infant dose of around 5% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose.