Factors Influencing Concentrations of Iron, Zinc, and Copper in Human Milk

  • Magnus Domellöf
  • Olle Hernell
  • Kathryn G. Dewey
  • Roberta J. Cohen
  • Bo Lönnerdal
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 554)

Abstract

The World Health Assembly recommends exclusive breastfeeding of infants until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding with appropriate complementary feeding until 2 years of age (WHA 2001). Iron deficiency as well as zinc deficiency are public health concerns during infancy, especially in developing countries (Domellöf & Hernell 2002). Copper deficiency, as well as copper toxicity, is a concern in infancy, although precise copper requirements have not been established for this age group (Lönnerdal 1998). Little is known about the mechanisms regulating the concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper in human milk (Lönnerdal 2000).

Keywords

Zinc Toxicity Lactate Ferritin Transferrin 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magnus Domellöf
    • 1
  • Olle Hernell
    • 1
  • Kathryn G. Dewey
    • 2
  • Roberta J. Cohen
    • 2
  • Bo Lönnerdal
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Sciences, PediatricsUmeå UniversitySweden
  2. 2.Department of NutritionUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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