Early Determinants of Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding among Guatemalan Infants
Ethnographic and observational studies suggest that during the perinatal period, physiological, psychosocial, and cultural factors influence initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding and patterns of feeding nonhuman milk substances (Pérez-Escamilla et al. 1996, 1998; Scott & Binns 1999; Chapman & Pérez-Escamilla 1999). Public health nutritionists need to understand the etiology of non-exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life because of the mismatch between actual and recommended breastfeeding practices (Lutter 2000; Seilen 2001). Studies have found that delayed lactogenesis stage II (LS-II) can be assessed by milk volume, human milk biomarkers, and maternal perception and recall of onset of lactation and if not resolved is a cause of actual and perceived difficulties with breastfeeding in the first days postpartum, persistent insufficient milk volume, early introduction of infant formula or other nonhuman milk substances, and reduced breastfeeding duration (Chapman & Pérez-Escamilla 1999, 2000a; Dewey 2001). To date, few studies have examined the causes or effects of delayed LS-II in rural populations in developing countries.
KeywordsHuman Milk Exclusive Breastfeed Maternal Obesity Maternal Perception Puerto Rican Woman
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