Congenital Anomalies

  • Anthony J. Raimondi


The hyperostosis of the sagittal and metopic synostotic sutures is generally more remarkable over the outer table, whereas coronal synostosis is characterized by exuberant hyperostosis along the inner table. Therefore, the synostosed sagittal suture may be lifted easily and safely from the superior sagittal sinus, since it is not adherent to this structure. The synostosed coronal suture, conversely, invariably protrudes into the underlying dura and is generally adherent to it.


Frontal Bone Coronal Suture Superior Orbital Fissure Lambdoidal Suture Orbital Roof 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Davis CH Jr, Alexander E Jr, Kelly DL Jr: Treatment 12. of cranial synostosis. J Neurosurg 30: 630–6, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shillito J Jr, Matson DD: Cranial stynostosis: A review 13. of 519 surgical patients. Pediatrics 41: 829–53, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ingraham Fd, Alexander E Jr, Matson DD: Clinical studies in craniosynostosis: Analysis of 50 cases and description of method of surgical treatment. Surgery 24: 518–41, 14. 1948.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Paul RP, Sugar O: Zenker’s solution in the surgical treatment of cranial synostosis. J Neurosurg 36: 604–7, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson FM, Johnson FL: Cranial synostosis: A modification in surgical treatment. Surgery 40: 961–70, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Giller HD, Harrison SH: Operative correction by osteotomy of recessed malar maxillary compound in a case of oxycephaly. Br J Plast Surg 3: 123, 1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tessier P: Anatomical classification of facial, cranio-facial 17. and latero-facial clefts. J Maxofac Surg 4: 69–92, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    LeFort R: Experimental study of fractures of the upper jaw. Part I II. In McDowell F (ed): The Source Book of Plastic Surgery. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1977.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Converse JM, Smith B: An operation for congenital and traumatic hypertelorism. In Troutman RC, Converse JM, 19. Smith B (eds): Plastic and Reconstruction Surgery of the Eye and Adnexa. Washington, DC, Butterworths, 1962.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tessier P: Orbital hypertelorism: II. Definitive treatment 20. of orbital hypertelorism by cranio-facial osteotomies. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 7: 39–58, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tessier P: The scope and principles, dangers and limita- 21. tions, and the need for special training in orbito-cranial surgery. In Hueston JT (ed): Trans Fifth International Congress on Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Butter- 22. worths, Melbourne, 1971, p 903.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Munro R: Orbito-cranio-facial surgery: The team approach. Plast Reconstr Surg 55: 170–6, 1955.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rougerie J, DeRome P, Anguez L: Craniostenoses et dysmorphies craniofaciales. Principes d’une nouvelle technique de traitement et ses résultats. Neurochirurgie 18: 429–40, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Edgerton MT, Jane JA, Berry Fa, Fischer JC: The feasibility of craniofacial osteotomies in infants and young children. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 8: 164–8, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tessier P: Treatment of facial dysmorphisms in craniofacial dysostosis (DCF). Crouzon and Apert diseases. Total osteotomy of the facial massif. Sagittal displacement of the facial massif. Neurochirurgie 17: 295–322, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lannelongue M: De la craniectomie dans la microcéphalie. CR Acad Sci Paris 110: 1382–5, 1890.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McLaurin RL, Matson DD: Importance of early surgical treatment of craniosynostosis. Review of 36 cases treated during the first six months of life. Pediatrics 10: 637–52, 1952.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anderson FM, Johnson FL: Craniosynostosis. A modification in surgical treatment. Surgery 40: 961–70, 1956.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Raimondi AJ, Gutierrez FA: A new surgical approach to the treatment of coronal synostosis. J Neurosurg 46: 210–4, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Greig DM: Hypertelorism: A hitherto undifferentiated congenital craniofacial deformity. Edinburgh Med J 31: 560, 1924.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Tessier P: Orbital hypertelorism. I. Successive surgical attempts. Material and methods. Causes and mechanisms. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 6: 135–55, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 20.
    Tessier P, Guiot G, Derome P: Orbital hypertelorism. II. Definite treatment of orbital hypertelorism (ORH) by craniofacial or by extracranial osteotomies. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 7: 39–58, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Delaire J: La croissance des os de la voûte du crane. Principes généroux. Rev Stomat 62: 518–26, 1961.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tessier P: Dysostoses craniofaciales osteotomies totales de la face. Trans 4th Int Congr Plast Reconstr Surg Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1969.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tessier P: Osteotomies totales de la face. Syndrome de Crouzon. Syndrome d’Apert. Oxycephalies. Scaphocephalies. Turricephalies. Ann Chir Plast 12: 273, 1967.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tessier P: The definitive plastic surgical treatment of the severe facial deformities of craniofacial dysostosis. Crouzon’s and Apert’s diseases. Plast Reconstr Surg 48: 419–42, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Holtermüller K, Weidermann HR: Kleeblattschädel Syndrom Med Monatsschr 14: 439–46, 1960.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Turner PT, Reynolds AF: Generous craniectomy for Kleeblattschädel anomaly. Neurosurgery 6: 555–8, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ingraham DF, Swan H: Spina bifida and cranium bifidum. I. A survey of five hundred and forty-six cases N Engl J Med 228: 559–63, 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fenger C: Basal hernias of the brain. Am J Med Sci 109: 1–17, 1895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Charoonsmith T, Suwanwela C: Frontoethmoid encephalomeningocele with special reference to plastic reconstruction. Clin Plast Surg 1: 27–47, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lewin ML, Schuster MM: Transpalatal correction of basilar meningocele with cleft palate. Arch Surg 90: 687–93, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Matson DD: Neurosurgery: Infancy and Childhood, cd 2. Springfield, IL, Thomas, 1969, p 68.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Suwanwela C, Sukabote C, Suwanwela N: Frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele. Surgery 69: 617–25, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Blumenfeld R, Skolnik EM: Intranasal encephaloceles. Arch Otolar 82: 527–31, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Robinson RG: Anterior encephalocele. Br J Surg 45: 36–40, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Avanzini G, Crivelli G: A case of sphenopharyngeal encephalocele. Acta Neurochir 22: 205–12, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bulinska H: A case of sphenoid meningocephalocele. Otolar Pol 26: 719–23, 1972.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lau BP, Newton TH: Sphenopharyngeal encephalomeningocele. Radio! Clin Biol 34: 386–98, 1965.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pollock JA, Newton TH: Encephalocele and cranium bifidum. In Newton TH, Potts (eds): Radiology of the Skull and Brain The Skull. St Louis, Mosby, 1973, pp 634–47.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wiese GM, Kempe LG, Hammon WM: Transsphenoidal meningohydroencephalocele. J Neurosurg 37: 475–8, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Choudhury A, Taylor JC: Primary intranasal encephalocele: Report of four cases. J Neurosurg 57: 552–5, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Heinecke W: Die chirurgischen Krankheiten des Kopfes. Stuttgart, Enke 1882, p. 252. Cited in Fenger C: Basel hernias of the brain. Am J Med Sci 109: 1–17, 1895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gisselsson L: Intranasal forms of encephalomeningocele. Acta Otolaryngol 35: 517, 1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lichtenberg G: Congenital tumour of the mouth, involving the brain and connected with malformations. Trans London Soc Pathol 18: 250–2, 1866–1867.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Virchow RLK: Die krankhaften Geschwulste. Berlin, Hirschwald, 1863, vol 1, p 188.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cleland J: Contribution to the study of spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephalus. J Anat Physiol 17: 257, 1882.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Arnold J: Myelocystic Transposition Nongewebsheimen und Sympodie. Beitr Pathol Anat 16: 1, 1894.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Grossman H, Sugar O, Greely P, Sadove MS: Surgical separation in craniopagus. JAMA 153: 201–7, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Durr SP: Craniopagus twins. JAMA 150: 93, 1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sharrard WJW, Zachary RB, Lorber J, Bruce AM: A controlled trial of immediate and delayed closure of spina bifida cystica. Arch Dis Child 39: 18–22, 1963.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Duckworth T, Sharrard WJ, Lister J, Seymour N: Hemimyelocele. Dev Med Child Neurol Suppl 16: 69–75, 1968.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lebedeff A: Über die Entstehung der Anencephalie mit Spina Bifida bei Vögeln und Menschen. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat Physiol 86: 263–98, 1881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Recklinghausen F von: Untersuchungen über die Spina bifida. Teil 2: Über die Art und die Entstehung der Spina bifida ihre Beziehung zur Rückenmarks-und Darmspalte. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat Physiol 105: 296–332, 1886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Morgagni GB: De Sedibus et Causis Morborum, (transl. Alexander B), London, Miller and Cadell, 1769.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Patten BM: Embryological stages in the establishing of myeloschisis with spina bifida. Am J Anat 93:365- -95, 1953.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    James CCM, Lassman LP: Spinal dysraphism. The diagnosis and treatment of progressive lesions in spina bifida occulta. J Bone Joint Surg 44: 828–40, 1962.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ingraham FD, Matson DD: Neurosurgery in Infancy and Childhood. Springfield, IL, Thomas, 1954.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Talwalker VC, Datsur DK: Meningoceles and meningomyeloceles (ectopic spinal cord). Clinicopathological basis of a new classification. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 33: 251–62, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Emery JL, Lendon RG: The local cord lesion in neuro-spinal dysraphism (meningomyelocele). J Pathol 110: 83–96, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rokos J: Pathogenesis of congenital malformations of the central nervous system with special reference to spina hi-fida and Arnold-Chiari malformation. MD Thesis, University of Birmingham, England, 1973.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Greenfield JG: Greenfield’s Neuropathology, cd 3. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1976, p 361.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lemire RJ, Loeser JD, Leech RW, Ellsworth CA Jr: Normal and Abnormal Development of the Human Nervous System. Hagerstown, MD, Harper and Row, 1975.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Karch SB, Urich H: Occipital encephalocele: A morphological study. J Neurol Sci 15: 89–112, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Uncited References

  1. Cerullo LJ, Raimondi AJ: The neuroradiological evaluations of the Arnold-Chiari malformations. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Myelomeningocele, Cincinnati, Ohio. Grune and Stratton, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. McLone DG, Raimondi AJ, Sommers MW: The results of early treatment of 100 consecutive newborns with myelomeningocele. Kinder Chirurgie Hippokrates Verlag Stuttgart 117–121, 1981.Google Scholar
  3. Mullan S, Raimondi AJ: Respiratory hazards of the surgical treatment of the Arnold-Chiari malformation. J Neurosurg 19: 675–8, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Raimondi AJ: Aqueductal stenosis. In Concepts in Pediatric Neurosurgery II. Basal, S. Karger, 1982, p 45.Google Scholar
  5. Raimondi AJ, Gutierrez FA: A new surgical approach for the treatment of coronal synostosis. J Neurosurg 46: 210–14, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Raimondi AJ, Samuelson G, Yarzagaray L, Norton T: Atre-sia of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie: The Dandy-Walker cyst. J Neurosurg 31: 202–16, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Raimondi AJ, Sato K, Shimoji T: The Dandy-Walker Cyst. Basal, S. Karger, 1983.Google Scholar
  8. Soare PL, Raimondi AJ: Intellectual and perceptual motor characteristics of treated myelomeningocele children. Am J Dis Child 131: 199–204, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Soare PL, Raimondi AJ: Quality of survival in treated myelomeningocele children: A prospective study. Decision making and the defective newborn. In Proceedings of a Conference on Spina Bifida and Ethics. Charles C Thomas, 1978, p 68.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony J. Raimondi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations