Transplacental Hemorrhage, Cell Transfer, Trauma

  • Kurt Benirschke
  • Peter Kaufmann


A century ago, considerable controversy raged as to whether the fetal and maternal circulations were united or separate. In an interesting essay, Baer (1828) discussed this dispute in great detail and, to settle the issue “once and for all,” he performed experiments on dogs. These studies showed conclusively that the two vascular beds are separate one from another and illustrated his findings well. The early history of this topic is covered in excellent detail in the historical review of de Witt (1959).


Fetal Death Maternal Blood Fetal Cell Maternal Circulation Fetal Hemoglobin 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
  • Peter Kaufmann
    • 2
  1. 1.University Medical CenterUniversity of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen FakultätRheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule AachenAachenGermany

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