Interpreting the Study

  • Bronwyn Jones
  • Martin W. Donner


The anatomy and physiological control of swallowing have been discussed in some depth in Chapter 2. However, we believe it is very important here to review the salient features of radiographic anatomy and the movements of individual structures that are analyzed in the radiographic study.


Soft Palate Hyoid Bone Posterior Pharyngeal Wall Piriform Sinus Laryngeal Penetration 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Donner MW, Bosma JF, Robertson DL: Anatomy and physiology of the pharynx. Gastrointest Radiol 1985;10:196–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bosma JF, Donner MW, Tanaka E, Robertson D: Anatomy of the pharynx, pertinent to swallowing. Dysphagia 1986;1:23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Curtis DJ: Radiographic anatomy of the pharynx. Dysphagia 1986;1:51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rubesin SE, Jessurun J, Robertson D, Jones B, Bosma JF, Donner MW: Lines of the pharynx. RadioGraphics 1987;7:217–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bosma JF: Deglutition: Pharyngeal state. Physiol Rev 1957;37:275–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miller AJ: Deglutition. Physiol Rev 1982;62:129–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miller AJ: Neurophysiological basis of swallowing. Dysphagia 1986;1:91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miller AJ: Swallowing: Neurophysiologic control of the esophageal phase. Dysphagia 1987;2:72–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dodds WJ, Stewart ET, Logemann JA: Physiology and radiology of the normal oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. AJR 1990;154:953–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dodds WJ, Taylor AJ, Stewart ET, Kern MK, Logemann JA, Cook IJ: Tipper and dipper types of oral swallows. AJR 1989;153:1197–1199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zerhouni EA, Bosma JF, Donner MW: Relationship of cervical spine disorders to dysphagia. Dysphagia 1987;1:129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Selley WG, Flack, FC, Ellis RE, Brooks WA: Respiratory patterns associated with swallowing: part 1-The normal adult pattern and changes with age. Age Aging 1989;18:168–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Curtis DJ: Laryngeal dynamics. CRC Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 1982;19:29–80.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dodds WJ, Man KM, Cook IJ, Kahrilas PJ, Stewart ET, Kern MK: Influence of bolus volume on swallow-induced hyoid movement in normal subjects. AJR 1988;150:1307–1309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ekberg O: The normal movements of the hyoid bone during swallow. Invest Radiol 1986;5:408–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ekberg O, Sigurjonsson S: Movements of the epiglottis during deglutition: A cineradiographic study. Gastrointest Radiol 1982;7:101–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gatenby RA, Rosenblum JS, Leonard CM, Moldofsky PJ, Broder GJ: Esophageal speech: Double-contrast evaluation of the pharyngo-esophageal segment. Radiology 1985;157:127–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Torres WE, Clements JL, Austin GE, Knight K: Cricopharyngeal muscle hypertrophy: Radiologic anatomic correlation. AJR 1984;141:927–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Seaman WB: Functional disorders of the pharyngoesophageal junction: Achalasia and chalasia. Radiol Clin North Am 1969;7:113–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sokol EM, Heitman P, Wolfe BS, Cohen BR: Simultaneous cineradiographic and manometric study of the pharynx, hypopharynx, and cervical esophagus. Gastroenterology 1966;51:960–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Templeton RE, Kredel RA: Cricopharyngeal sphincter: Roentgenologic study. Laryngoscope 1943;53:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crichlow TVL: Cricopharyngeus in radiography and cineradiography. Br J Radiol 1956;29:546–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seaman WB: Cineroentgenographic observations of the cricopharyngeus. AJR 1966;96:922–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Palmer ED: Disorders of the cricopharyngeus muscle: A review. Gastroenterology 1976;71:510–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roed-Peterson K: The pharyngo-esophageal sphincter: A review of the literature. Dan Med Bull 1979;26:275–281.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ekberg O, Nylander B: Dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal muscle. Radiology 1982;143:481–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Curtis DJ, Cruess DF, Berg T: The cricopharyngeal muscle: A videorecording review. AJR 1984;142:497–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dodds WJ, Kahrilas PJ, Dent J, Hogan WJ: Considerations about pharyngeal manometry. Dysphagia 1987;1:209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kahrilas PJ, Dodds WJ, Dent J, Logemann JA, Shaker R: Upper esophageal sphincter function during deglutition. Gastroenterology 1988;95:52–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Herrera JL, Lyons MF II, Johnson LF: Saliva: Its role in health and disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 1988;10:569–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Helm JF: Role of saliva in esophageal function and disease. Dysphagia 1989;4:76–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Helm JF, Dodds WJ, Pelc LR, Palmer DW, Hogan WJ, Teeter BC: Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus. N Engl J Med 1984;310:284–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Feinberg MJ, Ekberg O: Deglutition after nearfatal choking episode: Radiologic evaluation. Radiology 1990; 176: 637–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rubesin SE, Jones B, Donner MW: Radiology of the adult soft palate. Dysphagia 1987;2:8–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rubesin SE, Rabischong P, Bilaniuk LT, Laufer I, Levine MS: Contrast examination of the soft palate with cross sectional correlation. Radio-Graphics 1988;4:641–665.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Skolnick ML: Video fluoroscopic examination of the velopharyngeal portal during phonation in lateral and base projections—a new technique for studying the mechanisms of closure. Cleft Palate J 1970;7:803–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rubesin SE, Jessurun J, Robertson D, Jones B, Bosma JF, Donner MW: Lines of the pharynx. RadioGraphics 1987;7:217–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bronwyn Jones
  • Martin W. Donner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations