Skip to main content

Inorganic Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Other Nutrients

  • Chapter
Limnological Analyses

Abstract

Compounds of nitrogen, and especially those of phosphorus, are major cellular components of organisms. Since the availability of these ele­ments may be less than the biological demand, environmental sources can regulate or limit the productivity of organisms in freshwater ecosys­tems. Other elements such as iron and sulfur are essential cellular constituents but are required in relatively low concentrations in relation to availability in fresh waters. The major basic cations, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potas­sium, usually are required in very low quantities, but their concentrations in fresh water can influence the osmoregulation of organisms.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

eBook
USD 9.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • American Public Health Association et al. 1989. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 17th Ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. 1550 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Armstrong, F.A.J. and S. Tibbitts. 1968. Photochemical combustion of organic matter in seawater for nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon determination. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 48:143–152.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beaty, R.D. 1978. Concepts, Instrumentation and Techniques in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Perkin-Elmer Corp., Norwalk, CT.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burton, J.D., T.M. Leatherland, and P.S. Liss. 1970. The reactivity of dissolved silicon in some natural waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 15: 463–476.

    Google Scholar 

  • Butler, J.N. 1964. Ionic Equilibrium. A Mathematical Approach. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. 547 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carlson, R.M. and D.R. Keeney. 1971. Specific ion electrodes: Techniques and uses in soil, plant, and water analysis. pp. 39–65. In: L.M. Walsh, Editor. Instrumental Methods for Analysis of Soils and Plant Tissue. Soil Sci. Soc. America, Madison, Wis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durst, R.A. (ed). 1969. Ion selective electrodes. Spec. Publ. National Bureau Standards, Washington, D.C. 314. 452 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gallon, J.R., W.G.W. Kurz, and T.A. LaRue. 1975. The physiology of nitrogen fixation by a Gloeocapsa sp. pp. 159–173. 1n: W.D.P. Stewart, Editor. Nitrogen Fixation by Free-living Micro-organisms. Academic, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galloway, J.N., J. Cosby, and G.E. Likens. 1979. Acid precipitation: The measurement of pH and acidity in acid precipitation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 24:1161-1165.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrets, R.M. and C.L. Christ. 1965. Solution, Minerals, and Equilibria. Harper and Row, New York. 450 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gjerde, D.T. and J.S. Fritz. 1987. Ion Chromatography. 2nd Ed. Dr. Alfred Huthig Verlag, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Golterman, H.L. and R.S. Clymo (ed). 1969. Methods for Chemical Analyses of Fresh Waters. IBP Handbook No. 8. Blackwell, Oxford. 172 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, R.W.F., R.C. Burns, and R.D. Holsten. 1973. Applications of the acetylene-ethylene assay for measurement of nitrogen fixation. Soil Biol. Biochem. 5: 47–81.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, R.W.F., R.D. Holsten, E.K. Jackson, and R.C. Burns. 1968. The acetylene-ethylene assay for N2 fixation: Laboratory and field evaluation. Plant Physiol. 43:1185–1207.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harwood, J.E. and A.L. Kühn. 1970. A colorimetric method for ammonia in natural waters. Water Res. 4: 805–811.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lean, D.R.S. 1973: Phosphorus dynamics in lake water. Science 179: 678–680.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Likens, G.E. and P.L. Johnson. 1968. A limnological reconnaissance in interior Alaska. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Research Rept. 239. Hanover,N.H. 41 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lodge, J.P., Jr. (ed). 1989. Methods of Air Sampling and Analysis. 3rd Ed. Lewis Publ. Chelsea, Mich.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mackereth, F.J.H. 1963. Some Methods of Water Analysis for Limnologists. Sci. Publ. Freshw. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 21. 71 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manny, B.A., M.C. Miller, and R.G. Wetzel. 1971. Ultraviolet combustion of dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in lake waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 16: 71–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, C.E. 1964. The Physical Chemistry and Minerology of Soils. Vol. I. Soil Materials. Wiley, New York. 388 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Menzel, D.W. and N. Corwin. 1965. The measurement of total phosphorus in seawater based upon the liberation of organically bound fractions by persulfate oxidation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 10:280–282.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murphy, J. and J.P. Riley. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal. Chim. Acta 27: 31–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rainwater, F.H. and L.L. Thatcher. 1960. Methods for Collection and Analysis of Water Samples. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Supply Pap. 1454. 301 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodhe, W. 1949. The ionic composition of lake waters. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 10:377–386. Rodhe, W. 1951. Minor constituents in lake waters. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 11:317–323. Shugar, G.J., R.A. Shugar, L. Bauman, and R.S. Bauman. 1981. The Chemical Technician’s

    Google Scholar 

  • Ready Reference Handbook. McGraw-Hill, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Small, H., T.S. Stevens, and W.C. Bauman. 1975. Novel ion exchange chromatographic method using conductimetric detection. Anal. Chem. 47:1801–1804.

    Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, L.R. and J.J. Kirkland. 1986. An Introduction to Modern Liquid Chromatorgraphy. 3rd Ed. Wiley, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solorzano, L. 1969. Determination of ammonia in natural waters by the phenolhypochlorite method. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14: 799–801.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stadelmann, P. 1971. Stickstoffkreislauf and Primärproduktion im mesotrophen Vierwaldstättersee (Horwer Bucht) und im eutrophen Rotsee, mit besonderer Berüchsichtigung des Nitrats als limitierenden Faktors. Schweiz. Z. Hydrol. 33:1–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stainton, M.P., M.J. Capel, and F.A.J. Armstrong. 1977. The Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters. 2nd Ed. Misc. Spec. Publ. Dept. Environment Canada 25. 166 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stewart, W.D.P., G.P. Fitzgerald, and R.H. Burris. 1967. In situ studies on N2 fixation using the acetylene reduction technique. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 58: 2071–2078.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strickland, J.D.H. and T.R. Parsons. 1968. A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 167. 311 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tabatäbai, M.A. 1974. Determination of sulfate in water samples. Sulfur Inst. J. 10:11–13. Van Dorn, W.G. 1956. Large-volume water samplers. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 37: 682684.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wetzel, R.G. 1983. Limnology. 2nd Ed. Saunders Coll. Philadelphia. 860 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, W.S. and R.G. Wetzel. 1975. Nitrogen, phosphorus, particulate and colloidal carbon content of sedimenting seston of a hard-water lake. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 19: 330–339.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitfield, M. 1971. Ion Selective Electrodes for the Analysis of Natural Waters. Handbook 2, Australian Marine Sciences Association, Sydney. 130 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Willard, H.H., L.L. Merritt, Jr., J.A. Dean, and F.A. Settle, Jr. 1988. Instrumental Methods of Analysis. Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wood, E.D., F.A.J. Armstrong, and F.A. Richards. 1967. Determination of nitrate in sea water by cadmium-copper reduction to nitrite. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 47: 23–31.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 1991 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Wetzel, R.G., Likens, G.E. (1991). Inorganic Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Other Nutrients. In: Limnological Analyses. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-4098-1_7

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-4098-1_7

  • Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4757-4100-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4757-4098-1

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics