Average Values and Macroscopic Variables

  • J. A. Bittencourt


A systematic method for obtaining the average values of functions of particle velocities is presented in this chapter. The macroscopic variables, such as number density, flow velocity, kinetic pressure, thermal energy flux, and so on, can be considered as average values of physical quantities, involving the collective behavior of a large number of particles. These macroscopic variables are related to the the various moments of the distribution function. A formal definition of the moments of the distribution function is presented in section 10.


Surface Element Pressure Tensor Random Velocity Peculiar Velocity Macroscopic Variable 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Bittencourt
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute for Space Research (INPE)São José dos Campos, SPBrazil

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