According to Bohr’s atomic theory, an atom is composed of a nucleus at the center and one or more electrons rotating around the nucleus along different energy orbits. The nucleus is primarily composed of protons and neutrons, collectively called nucleons. For an atom of a given element, the number of electrons moving around the nucleus equals the number of protons, balancing the electrical charge of the nucleus. The number of protons in a nucleus is called the atomic number of the element and is denoted by Z. The size of an atom is of the order of 10-8 cm (1 angstrom, Å). The electron configuration of the atom determines the chemical properties of an element, whereas the nuclear structure characterizes the stability and radioactive decay of a nucleus.
KeywordsAtomic Number Electron Configuration Nuclear Force Valence Shell Mass Defect
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