Movement Disorders

  • H. James BrownleeJr.


The movement disorders are a group of neurologic diseases characterized by various degrees of degeneration in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, neostriatum, and higher brainstem. These disorders manifest various effects on the neurotransmitter balance including dopamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine. It is thought that it is the neurotransmitter disturbances that account for the variations in the clinical features of the movement disorders.


Multiple System Atrophy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Essential Tremor Tardive Dyskinesia Progressive Supranuclear Palsy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Martilla RJ. Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. In: Handbook of Parkinson’s disease, Koeller WC, editor. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1989:35–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cooper B. The epidemiology of primary degenerative dementia and related neurological disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neu-rosci 1991;240:223–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Golbe LI. Young-onset Parkinson’s disease: a clinical review. Neurology 1991;41:168–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ward CD, Duvoisin RC, Ince SE, Nutt JD, Eldridge R, Calne DB. Parkinson’s disease in 65 pairs of twins and in a set of quadruplets. Neurology 1983;33:815–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parkinson J. Essay on the shaking palsy. London: Sherwood, Neely & Jones, 1817.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stern M. The comprehensive management of Parkinson’s disease. New York: PMA Publishing, 1988:5.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gotham AM, Brown RG, Marsden CD. Depression in Parkinson’s disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986;49:381–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Leverenz J, Sumi M. Parkinson’s disease in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol 1986;43:662–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology 1967;17:427–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brooks DJ. Detection of preclinical Parkinson’s disease with PET. Neurology 1991;40 Suppl 3:24–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koller WC, Zilkoski M. Parkinson’s disease. Kansas City, MO: American Academy of Family Physicians, 1992:9–10.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuvisevsky J, Tolosa E. Amantadine in Parkinson’s disease. In: Koller WC, Paulson G, editors. Therapy of Parkinson’s disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1990:143–60.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Caraceni T, Scigliano G, Musicco M. The occurrence of motor fluctuations in parkinsonian patients treated long term with levodopa: role of early treatment and disease progression. Neurology 1991;41:380–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Diamond SG, Markham CH, Hoehn MM, McDowell FH, Muenter MD. Multi-center study of Parkinson mortality with early versus later dopa treatment. Ann Neurol 1987;22:8–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pincus JH, Barry K. Influence of dietary protein on motor fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease. Arch Neurol 1987;44:270–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koller WC, Hubble JP. Levodopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1990;40 Suppl 3:40–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nutt J. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: review, observations and speculations. Neurology 1990;40:340–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Obeso JA, Grandas F, Vaamonde J, et al. Motor complications associated with chronic levodopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1989;39 Suppl. 2:11–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ahlskog JE, Muenter MD, McManis PG, Bell GN, Bailey PA. Controlled-release Sinemet (CR-4): a double-blind crossover study in patients with fluctuating Parkinson’s disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1988;63:876–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rinne UK. Dopamine agonists as primary treatment in Parkinson’s disease. Adv Neurol 1987;45:519–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goetz C. Dopaminergic agonists in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1990;40 Suppl 3:50–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ahlskog JE, Muenter MD. Pergolide: long term use in Parkinson’s disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1988;63:679–87.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Taylor AE, Saint-Cyr JA, Lang AE, Kenney FT. Parkinson’s disease and depression: a critical re-evaluation. Brain 1986; 109:279–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tetrud JN, Langston JW. The effect of deprenyl (selegiline) on the natural history of Parkinson’s disease. Science 1989;245:519–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zornberg GL, Bodkin JA, Cohen BM. Severe adverse interaction between pethidine and selegiline. Lancet 1991;337:246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Parkinson Study Group. Effect of deprenyl on the progression of disability in early Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 1989;321: 1364–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kelly PJ, Ahlskog JE, Goerss SJ, Daube JP, Duffy JR. Computer-assisted stereotactic ventralis lateralis thalamotomy with micro-electrode recording control in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1987;62:655–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Madrazo I, Drucker-Colin R, Diaz V, Martinez-Mata J, Torres C, Becerril JJ. Open microsurgical autograft of adrenal medulla to the right caudate nucleus in two patients with intractable Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 1987;316:831–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kelly PH, Ahlskog JE, Van Heerden JA, Carmichael SW, Stoddard SL, Bell GN. Adrenal medullary autograft transplantation into the striatum of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1989;64:282–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goetz CG, Olanow CW, Koller WC. Multicenter study of autologous adrenal medullary transplantation to the corpus striatum in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 1989;320:337–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koller WC, Langston JW, Hubble JP, et al. Does a long preclinical period occur in Parkinson’s disease? Neurology 1991 ;41 Suppl 2:8–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ahlskog JE, Wilkinson JM. New concepts in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Am Fam Physician 1990;41:574–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Grimes JD, Hassan MN, Preston DN. Adverse neurologic effects of metaclopramide. Can Med Assoc J 1982;126:23–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Klawans HL, Stein RN, Tanner CM, Goetz CG. A pure parkinsonian syndrome following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Arch Neurol 1982;38:302–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Langston JN, Ballard PA, Tetrud JW, Irwin I. Chronic parkinsonism in humans due to a product of meperidine analog synthesis. Science 1983;219:979–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ballard PA, Tetrud JW, Langston JW. Permanent human parkinsonism due to l-methyl-n-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): seven cases. Neurology 1985;35:949–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Roos R, Gadjusek DC, Gibbs CJ. The clinical characteristics of transmissible Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Brain 1973;96:1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Maher ER, Lees AJ. The clinical features and natural history of the Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome (progressive supranuclear palsy). Neurology 1986;36:1005–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jankovic J. Parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Mov Disord 1989;4 Suppl 1:106–9.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Takei MS. Striatonigral degeneration: a form of multiple system atrophy with clinical parkinsonism. Prog Neuropathol 1973;2: 217–51.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Duvoisin RC. An apology and an introduction to the olivopontocerebellar atrophies. In: Duvoisin RC, Plaitakis A, editors. The olivopontocerebellar atrophies. New York: Raven Press, 1984:5–12.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Findley LJ, Koller WC. Essential tremor: a review. Neurology 1987;37:1194–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Growdon JH, Shahani BT, Young RR. The effect of alcohol on essential tremor. Neurology 1975;25:259–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hubble JP, Busenbark KL, Koller WC. Essential tremor. Clin Neuropharmacol 1989;12:453–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Koller WC, Vetere-Overfield B. Acute and chronic effects of propranolol and primidone in essential tremor. Neurology 1989;39: 1587–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Koller WC, Royse VL. Efficacy of primidone in essential tremor. Neurology 1986;36:121–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Muenter MD, Daube JR, Caviness JN, Miller PM. Treatment of essential tremor with methazolamide. Mayo Clin Proc 1991;66: 991–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jankovic J, Brin M. Therapeutic uses of botulinum toxin. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1186–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jankovic J, Fahn S. Dystonic syndromes. In: Jankovic J, Tolosa E, editors. Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Baltimore: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1988:283–314.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    NIH Consensus Development Conference Consensus Statement 1990 Nov 12–14; 8(8):2–15.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Casey DE. Tardive dyskinesia. West J Med 1990;153:535–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Saltz BL, Woerner MG, Kane JM, et al. Prospective study of tardive dyskinesia incidence in the elderly. JAMA 1991;226: 2402–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gerlach J. Tardive dyskinesia: pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical trials. Encephale 1988;14:227–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Baldessarini J. A summary of current knowledge of tardive dyskinesia. Encephale 1988;14:263–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. James BrownleeJr.

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations