Rheumatoid Arthritis and Related Disorders

  • Thomas E. Norris


Most “arthritis” patients in a family physician’s practice do not come to the physician, at least in the beginning, with a chief complaint of, “I have rheumatoid arthritis [or Sjögren’s syndrome or ankylosing spondylitis].” Instead, they usually present with the statement, “My hand/knee/hip joint(s) hurt.” From this entry point, the family physician must develop first a differential diagnosis, then a presumptive diagnosis, and finally a treatment plan. The remainder of this section deals with a clinical approach to the development of a differential diagnosis in patients with rheumatologic complaints based primarily on the history and physical examination in the office.


Rheumatoid Arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient Lupus Nephritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    O’Sullivan JB, Cathcart ES. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med 1912;76:513–7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Krane SM, Simon LS. Rheumatoid arthritis: clinical features and pathogenetic mechanisms. Med Clin North Am 1986;70:263–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Griffin AJ, Wooley P, Panayi GS, et al. HLA-DR antigens and disease expression in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1984;43:218–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    The viral aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis [editorial]. Lancet 1984;1:772–4.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ball EV, Koopoman WJ. Disorders of rheumatologic allergic, and dermatologie systems. In: Kelley’s textbook of internal medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1992:P914–9.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pearson CM, Amstutz HC, Bluenose R, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of erosive rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of joint destruction. Ann Intern Med 1975;82:241–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McCarty GA. Update on laboratory studies and relationship to rheumatic and allergic diseases. Ann Intern Med 1985;55:421–33.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beary JF, Christian CL, Sculco TP, editors. Manual of rheumatology and outpatient orthopedic disorders. Boston: Little, Brown, 1981:247–59.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Empire Rheumatism Council. Gold therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: report of a multicenter controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 1960;19:95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pinola RS, Kaplan SB, Lawson JG, Hepburn B. Sulfasalazine in rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind, placebo controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1986;29:1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Williams HJ, Wilkens RF, Samuelson CO Jr, et al. Comparison of low dose oral pulse methotrexate and placebo in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1985;28:721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harris ED Jr, Emkey RD, Nichols JE, Newberg A. Low dose prednisone therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind study J Rheumatol 1983;10:713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cabane J, Michon A, Ziza JM, et al. Comparison of long term evolution of adult onset and juvenile onset Still’s disease, both followed up for more than ten years. Ann Rheum Dis 1990;49:283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brewer EJ Jr, Giannini EH, Barkley E. Gold therapy in the management of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1980;23:404–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brewer EJ, Giannini EH, Kumina N, et al. Penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of severe juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 1986;314:1269–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Donovan WH. Physical measures in the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In: Miller JJ, editor. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979:209–27.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McGuire JC, Lanbert RE. Kelley’s textbook of internal medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1992:933.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Klippel JF, editor. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1988;14:1–25Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982;25:1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Austin HA, Klippel JH, Balow JE, et al. Therapy of lupus nephritis: controlled trial of prednisone and cyclotoxic drugs. N Engl J Med 1986;314:614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Branch DW, Scott JR, Kochenour NK, Hershgold E. Obstetric complications associated with the lupus anticoagulant. N Engl J Med 1985;313:614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tan EM, Rodnan GP, Garcia I, et al. Diversity of antinuclear antibodies in progressive systemic sclerosis: anti-centromere antibody and its relationship to CREST syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 1980;23:617–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Medsger TA Jr, Masi AT, Rodnan GP, et al. Survival with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): a life-table analysis of 309 patients. Ann Intern Med 1971;75:369–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Young EA, Steen V, Medsger TA Jr. Systemic sclerosis without Raynaud’s phenomenon. Arthritis Rheum 1986;29:S51.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kammer GM, Soter NA, Gibson DJ, et al. Psoriatic arthritis: a clinical, immunologic and HLA study of 100 patients. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1979;9:75–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Russell ML. Ankylosing spondylitis: the case of the underestimated female. J Rheumatol 1985;12:1–5.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arnett FC. Seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Bull Rheum Dis 1987;37:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Conference proceedings; fibromyalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol 1989;16Suppl 19:1–57Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Calamia KT, Hunder GG. Clinical manifestations of giant cell arteritis. Clin Rheum Dis 1980;6:389–403.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ausell BM. Management of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Clin Rheum Dis 1984;10:205–13.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas E. Norris

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations