Lymphoproliferative Diseases

  • Thomas V. Colby


Lymphoreticular diseases affecting the lung include primary and secondary lymphomas and related disorders, leukemias, and a number of lesions that are generally considered benign and hyperplastic processes. Pseudolymphoma, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, small (well-differentiated) lymphocytic lymphomas, and lymphomatoid granulomatosis have long been difficult lesions for pathologists.1–5 Lymphomatoid granulomatosis, with its synonyms,6–8 has been considered by some to be a peculiar vasculitis and by others a lymphoproliferative disorder, with the latter being the prevailing view.8


Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Mycosis Fungoides Lymphoproliferative Disease Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CB. Diffuse pulmonary lymphoreticular infiltrations associated with dysproteinemia. Med Clin North Am 1973; 57: 809–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saltzstein SL. Extranodal malignant lymphomas and pseudolymphomas. Pathol Annu 1969; 4: 159–184.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Greenberg SD, Heisler JG, Gyorkey F, Jenkins DE: Pulmonary lymphomas versus pseudolymphoma: a perplexing problem. South Med J 1972; 65: 775–784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Julsrud PR, Brown LR, Li Cy, Rosenow EC, Crowe JK. Pulmonary processes of mature-appearing lymphocytes: Pseudolymphoma, well-differentiated lympho-cytic lymphoma, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. Radiology 1978; 127: 289–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CB, Friedman PJ. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Hum Pathol 1972; 3: 457–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeRemee RA, Weiland LH, McDonald TJ. Polymorphic reticulosis, lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Two diseases or one? Mayo Clinic Proc 1978; 53: 634–640.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saldana MJ, Patchefsky AS, Israel HI, Atkinson GW. Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Hum Pathol 1977; 8: 391–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lipford EH, Jr., Margolick JB, Longo DL, Fauci AS, Jaffe ES. Angiocentric immunoproliferative lesions: A clinicopathologic spectrum of post-thymic T-cell prolif-erations. Blood 1988; 72: 1674–1681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berard CW, Greene MH, Jaffe ES, Magrath I, Ziegler J. A multidisciplinary approach to non-Hogkin’s lymphomas. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94: 218–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nagaishi C. Functional anatomy and histology of the lung. Baltimore: University Park, 1972.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Okada Y. Lymphatic system of the human lung. Kyoto: Kinpodo, 1989.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kradin RL, Spirn PW, Mark EJ. Intrapulmonary lymph nodes. Chest 1985; 87: 662–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bienenstock J, Johnston N, Perey DYE. Bronchial lymphoid tissue. I. Morphologic characteristics. Lab Invest 1973; 28: 686–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bienenstock J, Johnston N, Perey DYE. Bronchial lymphoid tissue. I1. Functional characteristics. Lab Invest 1973; 28: 693–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bienenstock J, Befus AD. Gut-and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Am J Anat 1984; 170: 437–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pabst R, Gehrke I. Is the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) an integral structure of the lung in normal mammals, including humans? Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1990; 3: 131–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harris NL. Extranodal lymphoid infiltrates and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT): A unifying concept. Am J Surg Pathol 1991; 16: 879–883.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Isaacson PG, Spencer J. Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Histopathology (Oxf) 1987; 11: 445–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Addis BJ, Hyjek E, Isaacson PG. Primary pulmonary lymphoma: A re-appraisal of its histogenesis and its relationship to pseudolymphoma and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology (Oxf) 1988; 13: 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isaacson P, Wright DH. Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Cancer 1983; 52: 1410–1416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Isaacson P, Wright DH. Extranodal malignant lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Cancer 1984; 53: 2515–2524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hernandez JA, Sheehan WW. Lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Cancer 1985; 55: 59 2597.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morris H, Edwards“ Tiltman A, Emms M: Endometrial lymphoid tissue: An immunohistological study. J Clin Pathol 1985; 38: 644–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bragg DG. The clinical, pathologic, and radiologic spectrum of the intrathoracic lymphomas. Invest Radiol 1978; 13: 2–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Balikian JP, Herman PG. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the lungs. Radiology 1979; 132: 569–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Blank N, Castellino RA. The intrathoracic manifestations of the malignant lymphomas and the leukemias. Semin Roentgenol 1980; 15: 227–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yousem SA, Colby TV, Carrington CB. Follicular bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Hum Pathol 1985; 16: 700–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Meuwissen HJ, Hussian M. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in human lung: Correlation of hyperplasia with chronic pulmonary disease. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1982; 23: 548–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yousem SA, Colby TV, Carrington CB. Lung biopsy in rheumatoid arthritis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 770–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kradin RL, Mark EJ. Benign lymphoid disorders of the lung with a theory regarding their development. Hum Pathol 1983; 14: 857–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dorfman RF, Warnke RA. Lymphadenopathy simulating malignant lymphomas. Hum Pathol 1974; 5: 519–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frizzera G, Moran EM, Rappaport H. Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia. Am J Med 1975; 59: 803–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Watanabe S, Shimosato Y, Shimoyama M. Lymphoma and leukemia of T-lymphocytes. Pathol Annu 1981; 16 (Part 2): 155–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Iseman MD, Schwarz MI, Stanford RE. Interstitial pneumonia in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia. Ann Intern Med 1976; 85: 752–755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zylak CJ, Banerjee R, Galbraith PA, McCarthy DS. Lung involvement in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Radiology 1976; 121: 513–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weisenburger D, Armitage L, Dick F. Immunoblastic lymphadenopathy with pulmonary infiltrates, hypocomplementemia and vasculitis. Am J Med 1977; 63: 849–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Strimlan CV, Rosenow EC, III, Weiland LH, Brown LR. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. Ann Intern Med 1978; 88: 616–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koss MN, Hochholzer L, Langloss JM, Wehunt WD, Lazarus AA. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia: Clinico-pathological and immunopathological findings in 18 cases. Pathology 1987; 19: 178–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Church JA, Isaacs H, Saxon A, Keens TG, Richards W. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis and hypogammaglobulinemia in children. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981; 124: 491–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dukes RJ, Rosenow EC, Hermans PE. Pulmonary manifestations of hypogammaglobulinemia. Thorax 1978; 33: 603–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yoshizawa Y, Ohdama S, Ikeda A, Ohtsuka M, Masuda S, Tanaka M. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia associated with depressed cellular immunity and polyclonal gammopathy. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 130: 507–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Solal-Celigny P, Couderc LJ, Herman D, et al. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related complex. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 956–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Greico MH, Chinoy-Acharya P. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia associated with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 952–955.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Perreault C, Cousineau S, D’Angelo G, et al. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Cancer 1985; 55: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khardori R, Eagleton LE, Soler NG, McConnachie PR. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis in autoimmune thyroid disease. Am J Med 1991; 90: 649–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kohler PF, Cook RD, Brown WR, Manguso RL. Common variable hypogammaglobulinemia with T-cell nodular lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis and B-cell nodular lymphoid hyperplasia: Different lymphocyte populations with a similar response to prednisone therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982; 70: 299–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Colby TV, Carrington CB. Lymphoreticular tumors and infiltrates of the lung. Pathol Annu 1983; 18: 27–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Turner RR, Colby TV, Doggett RS. Well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma: A study of 47 cases with primary manifestation of the lung. Cancer 1984; 54: 2088 2096.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kohler PF, Cook RD, Brown WR, Manguso RL. Common variable hypogammaglobulinemia with T-cell nodular lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis and B-cell nodular lymphoid hyperplasia: Different lymphocyte populations with a similar response to prednisone therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982; 70: 299–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Koss MN, Hochholzer L, Nichols PW, Wehunt WD, Lazarus AA. Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and pseudolymphoma of the lung: A study of 161 patients. Hum Pathol 1983; 14: 1024–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weiss LM, Yousem SA, Warnke RA. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the lung. Am J Surg Pathol 1985; 9: 480–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    L’Hoste RJ, Filippa DA, Lieberman PH, Bretsky S. Primary pulmonary lymphomas. Cancer 1984; 54: 1397–1406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Herbert A, Wright DH, Isaacson PG. Primary malignant lymphoma of the lung: Histopathologic and immunologic evaluation of nine cases. Hum Pathol 1984; 15: 415–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kennedy JL, Nathwani BN, Burke JS, Hill LR, Rappaport H. Pulmonary lymphomas and other lymphoid lesions. Cancer 1985; 56: 539–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Li G, Hansmann M-L, Zwingers T, Lennert K. Primary lymphomas of the lung: Morphological, immunohistochemical, and clinical features. Histopathology (Oxf) 1990; 16: 519–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Saltzstein SL. Pulmonary malignant lymphomas and pseudolymphomas: Classification, therapy, and prognosis. Cancer 1963; 16: 928–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Colby TV, Lombard C, Yousem SA, Kitaichi M. Atlas of pulmonary surgical pathology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1991.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Keller AR, Hochholzer L, Castleman B. Hyaline-vascular and plasma-cell types of giant lymph node hyperplasia of the mediastinum and other locations. Cancer 1972; 29: 670–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Papaioannou AN, Watson WL. Primary lymphoma of the lung: An appraisal of its natural history and a comparison with other localized lymphoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1965; 47: 373–387.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Colby TV, Carrington CB. Malignant lymphoma simulating lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1982; 6: 19–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Essig LJ, Timms ES, Hancock DE, Sharp GC. Plasma cell interstitial pneumonia and macroglobulinemia. Am J Med 1974; 56: 398–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Winterbauer RH, Riggins RCK, Griesman FA, Bauermeister DE: Pleuropulmonary manifestations of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia. Chest 1974; 66: 368–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Case 43–1982. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 1065–1073.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Case 41–1984. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 969–978.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Isaacson PG, Wotherspoon AC, Diss T, Pan L. Follicular colonization in B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Am J Surg Pathol 1991; 15: 819–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nichols PW, Koss MN, Taylor CR, Hochholzer L. Immunoperoxidase studies in the diagnosis of 51 primary pulmonary lymphoid lesions. Lab Invest 1980; 44: 48A.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wotherspoon AC, Soosay GN, Diss TC, Isaacson PG. Low-grade primary B-cell lymphoma of the lung. Am J Clin Pathol 1990; 94: 655–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gaulard PH, Couderc LJ, Post C, et al. Primary pulmonary lymphoma with gastric involvement in four cases. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: A117.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cathcart-Rake W, Bone RC, Sabonya RE, Stephens RL. Rapid development of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in histiocytic lymphoma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 117: 587–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chechani V, Allam AA, Kamholz SL. Pulmonary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma mimicking infection. Respir Med 1990; 84: 401–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Colby TV, Dorfman RF. Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands. Pathol Annu 1979; 14: 307–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lewin KJ, Ranchod M, Dorfman RF. Lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Cancer 1978; 42: 693–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Katzenstein ALA, Carrington CB, Liebow AA. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. A clinicopathologic study of 152 cases. Cancer 1979; 43: 360–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Koss MN, Hochholzer L, Langloss JM, Wehunt WD, Lazarus AA, Nichols PW. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: A clinicopathologic study of 42 patients. Pathology 1986; 18: 283–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Petras RE, Sebek BA, Tubbs RR. Immunomorphology of lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Am J Clin Pathol 1981; 74: 354 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nichols PW, Koss M, Levine AM, Lukes RJ. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: A T-cell disorder? Am J Med 1982; 72: 467–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nonomura A, Ohta G. Lymphomatoid granulomatosislike lesions in malignant lymphoma. Acta Pathol Jpn 1986; 36: 1617–1626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Medeiros LJ, Peiper SC, Elwood L, Yano T, Raffeld M, Jaffe ES. Angiocentric immunoproliferative lesions: A molecular analysis of eight cases. Hum Pathol 1991; 21: 1150–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mittal K, Neri A, Feiner H, Schinella R, Alfonso F. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cancer 1990; 65: 1345–1349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ilowite NT, Fligner CL, Ochs HD, et al. Pulmonary angiitis with atypical lymphoreticular infiltrates in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: Possible relationship of lymphomatoid granulomatosis and EBV infection. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1986; 41: 479–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Katzeinstein ALA, Peiper SC. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus geromas in lymphomatoid granulomatosis: Analysis of 29 cases by the polymerase chain reaction technique. Mod Pathol 1990; 3: 435–441.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Randhawa PS, Yousem SA, Paradis IL, Dauber JA, Griffith DP, Locker J. The clinical spectrum, pathology, and clonal analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in heart-lung transplant recipients. Am J Clin Pathol 1989; 92: 177–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Randhawa PS, Yousem SA. Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease in a heart-lung allograft. Transplantation 1990; 49: 126–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Andiman WA, Martin K, Rubinstein A, Paliwa S, Eastman R, Katz BZ, Pitt J, Miller G. Opportunistic lymphoproliferations associated with Epstein-Barr viral DNA in infants and children with AIDS. Lancet 1985; ii:1390–1391.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Teirstein AS, Rosen MJ. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Clin Chest Med 1988; 9: 467–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Heitzman ER. Pulmonary neoplastic and lymphoproliferative disease in AIDS: A review. Radiology 1990; 177: 347–351.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Stroup RM, Shebani K, Moncada A, Purdy IT Battifora H. Angiotropic (intravascular) large cell lymphoma. Cancer 1990; 66: 1781–1788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tan TB, Spaander PJ, Blaisse M, Gerritzen FM. Angiotropic large cell lymphoma presenting as interstitial lung disease. Thorax 1988; 43: 578–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yousem SA, Colby TV. Intravascular lymphomatosis presenting in the lung. Cancer 1990; 65: 349–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kern WH, Crepeau AG, Jones JC. Primary Hodgkin’s disease of the lung. Cancer 1961; 14: 1151–1165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yousem SA, Weiss LM, Colby TV. Primary pulmonary Hodgkin’s disease: A clinicopathologic study of 15 cases. Cancer 1986; 57: 1217–1224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Radin AI. Primary pulmonary Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 1990; 65: 550–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Harper PG, Fisher C, McLennan K, Souhami RL. Presentation of Hodgkin’s disease as an endobronchial lesion. Cancer 1984; 53: 147–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Daly PA, O’Briain D, Robinson I, Guckian M, Prichard JS. Hodgkin’s disease with a granulomatous pulmonary presentation mimicking sarcoidosis. Thorax 1988; 43: 407–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rosenow EC, Wilson WR, Cockerill FR. Pulmonary disease in the immunocompromised host. Mayo Clin Proc 1985; 60: 473–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rossi GA, Balbi B, Risso M, Repetto M, Ravazzoni C. Acute myelomonocytic leukemia: Demonstration of pulmonary involvement by bronchoalveolar lavage. Chest 1985; 87: 259–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hildebrand FL, Rosenow EC III, Habermann TM, Tazelaar HD. Pulmonary complications of leukemia. Chest 1990; 98: 1233–1239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Green RA, Nichols NJ. Pulmonary involvement in leukemia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1959; 80: 833–844.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Klatte EC, Yardley J, Smith EB, Rohn R, Campbell JA. The pulmonary manifestations and complications of leukemia. AJR 1963; 89: 598–609.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Palosaari D, Colby TV. Bronchiolocentric chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 1986; 58: 1695–1698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    McCabe RE, Brooks RG, Mark JBD, Remington JS. Open lung biopsy in patients with acute leukemia. Am J Med 1985; 78: 609–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Myers TJ, Solon RC, Klatsky AU, Hild DH. Respiratory failure due to pulmonary leukostasis following chemotherapy of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 1983; 51: 1808–1813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lester RJ, Johnson JW, Cuttner J. Pulmonary leukostasis is the single worst prognostic factor in patients with acute myelocytic leukemia and hyperleukocytosis. Am J Med 1985; 79: 43–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yoshioka R, Yamaguchi K, Yoshinaga T, Takatsuki K. Pulmonary complications in patients with adult T-cell leukemia. Cancer 1985; 55: 2491–2494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Callahan M, Wall S, Askin F, Delaney D, Koller C, Orringer EP. Granulocytic sarcoma presenting as pulmonary nodules and lymphadenopathy. Cancer 1987; 60: 1902–1904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hicklin GA, Drevyanko TF. Primary granulocytic sarcoma presenting with pleural and pulmonary involvement. Chest 1988; 94: 655–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Desjardins A, Ostiguy G, Cousineau S, Gyger M. Recurrent localised pneumonia due to bronchial infiltration in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Thorax 1990; 45: 570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kovalski R, Hansen-Flaschen H, Lodato RF, Pietra GG. Localized leukemic pulmonary infiltrates: Diagnosis by bronchoscopy and resolution with therapy. Chest 1990; 17: 674–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Beckman EN, Oehrle JS. Fibrous hematopoietic tumors arising in angiogenic myeloid metaplasia. Hum Pathol 1982; 13: 804–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Colby TV, Carrington CB, Mark GJ. Pulmonary involvement in malignant histiocytosis: A clinicopathologic spectrum. Am J Surg Pathol 1981; 5: 61–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wongchaowart B, Kennealy JA, Crissman J, Hawkins H. Respiratory in malignant histiocytosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981; 124: 640–642.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Van Heerde P, Feltkamp CA, Hart AAM, Somers R. Malignant histiocytosis and related tumors: A clinico-pathologic study of 42 cases using cytological, histochemical, and ultrastructural parameters. Hematol Oncol 1984; 2: 13–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Aozasa K, Tsujimoto M, Inoue A. Malignant histiocytosis: Report of 25 cases with pulmonary, renal, and/or gastrointestinal involvement. Histopathology (Oxf) 1985; 9: 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kadin ME. T Gamma cells: A missing link between malignant histiocytosis and T cell leukemia-lymphoma. Hum Pathol 1981; 12: 771–772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Delsol G, Saati TA, Gatter KC, et al. Coexpression of epithelial membrane (EMA), Ki-1, and interleukin-2 receptor by anaplastic large cell lymphomas: Diagnostic value in so-called malignant histiocytosis. Am J Pathol 1988; 130: 59–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Marglin SI, Soulen RL, Blank N, Castellino RA: Mycosis fungoides: Radiographic manifestations of extracutaneous intrathoracic involvement. Radiology 1979; 130: 35–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wolfe JD, Trevor ED, Kjeldsberg CR. Pulmonary manifestations of mycosis fungoides. Cancer 1980; 46: 2648–2653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Carter D, Eggleston JC. Tumors of the lower respiratory tract. Atlas of tumor pathology, Ser. II, Fasc. 17. Washington DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1980: 270–272.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Amin R. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the lung. Cancer 1985; 56: 152–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Roikjaer O, Thomsen JK. Plasmacytoma of the lung. A case report describing two tumors of different immunologic type in a single patient. Cancer 1986; 58: 2671–2674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Garewal H, Durie BGM. Aggressive phase of multiple myeloma with pulmonary plasma cell infiltrates. Case reports. JAMA 1982; 248: 1875–1876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Case 17–1984. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 1103–1112.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gabriel S. Multiple myeloma presenting as pulmonary infiltration. Dis Chest 1965; 47: 123–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kijner CH, Yousem SA. Systemic light chain deposition disease presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules. Am J Surg Pathol 1988; 12: 405–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kaplan HS. Hodgkin’s disease. Cambridge: Harvard, 1972.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bellotti M, Elsner B, Esteva H, Mackinlay TA. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of pulmonary lymphomas. Respiration 1987; 52: 201–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rose RM, Grigas D, Strattemeier E, Harris NL, Ling-good RM. Endobronchial involvement with nonHogkin’s lymphoma. Cancer 1986; 57: 1750–1755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Dugdale DC, Salness TA, Knight L, Charan NB. Endobronchial granulocytic sarcoma causing acute respiratory failure in acute myelogenous leukemia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 136: 1248–1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Snyder LS, Cherwitz DL, Dykoski RK, Rice KL. Endobronchial Richter’s syndrome. A rare manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 136: 980–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ieki R, Goto J, Kouzai Y, Morisaki T, Asano S, Shimada K, Takaku F. Endobronchial non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Respir Med 1989; 83: 87–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kilgore TL, Chasen MH. Endobronchial non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Chest 1983; 84: 58–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Miller KS, Sahn SA. Mycosis fungoides presenting as ARDS and diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage. Radio-graphic and pathologic pulmonary manifestations. Chest 1986; 89: 312–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Oka M, Kawano K, Kanda T, Hara K. Bronchoalveolar lavage in primary pulmonary lymphoma with monoclonal gammopathy. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137: 957–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Riazmontazer N, Bedayat G. Cytology of plasma cell myeloma in bronchial washing. Acta Cytol 1989; 33: 519–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wisecarver J, Ness MJ, Rennard SI, Thompson AB, Armitage JO, Linder J. Bronchoalveolar lavage in the assessment of pulmonary Hodgkin’s disease. Acta Cytol 1989; 33: 527–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas V. Colby

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations