The use of noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure has received much attention in recent years because of the recognition of the important complications that result from translaryngeal intubation and also the recent development of new and different devices to perform noninvasive ventilation. Although noninvasive ventilation techniques in the form of negative pressure ventilation (e.g., tank ventilators, cuirass, rocking beds) have been used since the 1930s for the treatment of acute respiratory failure, the development of more responsive devices providing negative pressure ventilation, coupled with the recent development of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), have facilitated the increased use of noninvasive ventilation. Moreover, recent awareness that avoidance of translaryngeal intubation preserves upper airway function (e.g., speech, swallowing), enhances patient comfort, decreases the incidence of nosocomial respiratory infections, and appears to improve morbidity and mortality in some individuals (Table 35–1) has led to greater emphasis on noninvasive ventilation.
KeywordsChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Obstructive Sleep Apnea Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patient Acute Respiratory Failure
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