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Circumstellar Envelopes

  • Hans Olofsson
Part of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Library book series (AAL)

Abstract

The gas and bulk (in the form of microscopic grains) particles that escape the stellar gravitational attraction, i.e., the stellar wind, form an expanding envelope around the AGB star, a circumstellar envelope (CSE). Since the mass-loss and acceleration efficiencies substantially vary depending on the properties of the mass-losing star, the characteristics of the CSEs also vary considerably, e.g., in terms of opaqueness, geometry, kinematics, and chemistry. It is observationally established that mass-loss rates up to 10–4 M<Subscript>⊙</Subscript> yr-1 exist, i.e., the star can lose a solar mass of material in about 104 years; a time scale that is very short even for an AGB star. Such a high mass-loss rate also means that the central star will be highly obscured; i.e., essentially all of the stellar radiation emitted at visual and near-infrared wavelengths will eventually be absorbed in the dusty CSE and reemitted at longer wavelengths. In general, the mass-loss rates are lower than this, and the stellar and circumstellar characteristics can be studied simultaneously, although they are not always easy to disentangle. The AGB stellar winds are slow by astronomical standards; the large majority are found in the range 3–30 km s-1, and typical velocities lie in the range 5–15 kms-1. The dust constitutes about one percent or less of the total mass, but probably plays a major dynamic role, and the evidence is good that it is responsible for at least the most intense mass loss.

Keywords

Optical Depth Line Profile Column Density Dust Emission Brightness Distribution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Olofsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Stockholm ObservatorySweden

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