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Introduction

  • A. O. Tarakanov
  • V. A. Skormin
  • S. P. Sokolova

Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) first appeared as a scientific field within the overall framework of cybernetics and has, perhaps, suffered from the excessive optimism of its early stages. It seemed then that impressive results in the simulation of brain function would be reached through an increase in computer power. It was expected that the main hypothesis of AI, that “thinking is manipulation with symbols by prescript algorithms,” would be confirmed (Kryukov, 1988) in the near future. This situation has been exacerbated by the usual practice of authors and publishers, who customarily publish successes but not failures, a practice that cannot give a realistic impression of the course of research.

Keywords

Artificial Neural Network Cellular Automaton Artificial Immune System Immune Network Learn Classifier System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. O. Tarakanov
    • 1
  • V. A. Skormin
    • 2
  • S. P. Sokolova
    • 1
  1. 1.St. Petersburg Institute for InformaticsRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Watson SchoolBinghamton UniversityBinghamtonUSA

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