• Lenore E. A. Walker
  • David L. Shapiro


The history of the juvenile justice system began in 1899 with the first court that was especially designed for juveniles established in Cook County (Chicago) Illinois. Within 30 years, all states had followed Chicago’s lead and enacted laws and special rehabilitation services for responding to the needs in youth. It must be recognized that it wasn’t until the late 19th century that we began to see youth as different from miniature adults. Until then, minors who got in trouble with the law were treated as adults with the same penalties. Children under the age of seven were considered to be in their infancy and that was an absolute defense. From ages 7 to 14, there was a presumption that a youth had the mental capacity to form intent to commit a crime which could be rebutted by a showing of immaturity, similar to the competency standards in use today. Otherwise, a child was treated as an adult.


Police Officer Ptsd Symptom Violent Crime Juvenile Justice System Status Crime 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lenore E. A. Walker
    • 1
  • David L. Shapiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Nova Southeastern UniversityFt. LauderdaleUSA

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