Evolution of Central Metabolic Pathways: The Playground of Non-orthologous Gene Displacement

  • Eugene V. Koonin
  • Michael Y. Galperin


One of the central goals of functional genomics is the complete reconstruction of the metabolic pathways of the organisms, for which genome sequences have been obtained. As discussed in Chapter 1, there is no chance that all necessary biochemical experiments are ever done in any substantial number of organisms. Therefore reconstructions made through comparative genomics, combined with the knowledge derived from experiments on model systems, are the only realistic path to a satisfactory understanding of the biochemical diversity of life and to the characterization of poorly studied and hard-to-grow organisms (including extremely important ones, e.g. the syphilis spirochete T. pallidum [243,887]).


Archaeal Genome Purine Biosynthesis Phosphoglycerate Mutase Pyrimidine Biosynthesis Arginine Biosynthesis 
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Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Romano AH, Conway T. 1996. Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways. Research in Microbiology 147: 448–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Galperin MY, Walker DR, Koonin EV. 1998. Analogous enzymes: independent inventions in enzyme evolution. Genome Research 8: 779–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dandekar T, Schuster S, Snel B, Huynen M, Bork P. 1999. Pathway alignment: application to the comparative analysis of glycolytic enzymes. Biochemical Journal 343: 115–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Huynen MA, Dandekar T, Bork P. 1999. Variation and evolution of the citric-acid cycle: a genomic perspective. Trends in Microbiology 7: 281–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cordwell SJ. 1999. Microbial genomes and “missing” enzymes: redefining biochemical pathways. Archives of Microbiology 172: 269–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Galperin MY, Koonin EV. 2001. Comparative genome analysis. In: Bioinformatics: a practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins (Baxevanis AD and Ouellette BFF, eds) pp. 359–392. John Wiley & Sons, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Canback B, Anderson SG, Kurland CG. 2002. The global phylogeny of glycolytic enzymes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99: 6097–6102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Galperin MY, Koonin EV. 1999. Searching for drug targets in microbial genomes. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 10, 571–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene V. Koonin
    • 1
  • Michael Y. Galperin
    • 1
  1. 1.National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of MedicineNational Institutes of HealthUSA

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