Surface Deformation Measurements

  • Gary A. Fleming


Accurate surface deformation measurements are often required in industrial manufacturing processes to ensure the quality of products and for monitoring the structural health of components subjected to mechanical loads. Surface deformation can be measured at discrete points on a specimen by using contacting instruments such as dial gauges, styluses, or strain gauges. Additionally, surface deformation caused by mechanical actuation can be inferred using potentiometers or Linear Variable Displacement Transformers (LVDTs) incorporated into the actuation mechanism. However, there are circumstances which require non-contacting measurement of surface deformation over large areas, with high spatial resolution. For these types of applications, the capabilities provided by optical surface deformation measurement techniques far surpass those of any electromechanical transducer.


Wind Tunnel Grid Line Deformation Measurement Calibration Target Phase Unwrap 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    F. Fahy, Sound and Structural Vibration — Radiation, Transmission, and Response, Academic Press, San Diego, CA (1985), pg. 55.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    V.P. Shchepinov, V.S. Pisarev, S.A. Novikov, B.B. Balalov, I.N. Odintsev, and M.M. Bondarenko, Strain and Stress Analysis by Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, England (1996).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, (1989).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.L. Cloud, Optical Methods of Engineering Analysis, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.K. Rastogi, editor, Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications, Artech House, Inc., Boston, MA, (1997).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P.K. Rastogi, editor, Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, England (2001).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.S. Sirohi, editor, Speckle Metrology, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY (1993).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.S. Sirohi and F.S. Chau, Optical Methods of Measurement — Wholefield Techniques, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, (1999).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.W. Burner and T. Liu, “Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique”, Journal of Aircraft, 38(4), pp. 745–754, July/August (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Northern Digital Inc. staff, “OPTOTRAK™: System Guide — version 1.0.1”, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, December, 1994, Copyright © 1994.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.C. Slamma, Manual of Photogrammetry, 4th ed, ASP Falls Church, Virginia (1980).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.M. Karara, editor, Non-Topographic Photogrammetry, 2nd ed., American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Falls Church, Virginia (1989).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E.M. Mikhail, J.S. Bethel, and J.C. McGlone, Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry, John Wiley, New York (2001).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    K.B. Atkinson, editor, Close-Range Photogrammetry and Machine Vision, Whittles Publishing, UK (2001).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.W. Burner, G.A. Fleming, and J.C. Hoppe, “Comparison of Three Optical Methods for Measuring Model Deformation”, AIAA-2000–0835, 38th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, January 10–13, 2000.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McGowan, A.R., “AVST Morphing Project Research Summaries in Fiscal Year 2001”, NASA/TM-2002–211769, August, 2002.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.O. Simpson, et al., “Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing”, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3326, pp. 240–251 (1998).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.N. Kudva, et al., “Overview of the DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Wing Program”, Proc. SPIE Vol. 3674, pp. 230–236 (1999).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G.A. Fleming, H.L. Soto, and B.W. South, “Projection Moiré Interferometry for Rotorcraft Applications: Deformation Measurements of Active Twist Rotor Blades”, American Helicopter Society 58th Annual Forum, Montreal, Canada, June 10–13, 2002.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bruning, et al., “Digital wavefront measurement interferometer for testing optical surfaces and lenses”, Applied Optics, Vol. 30, pp. 2693–2703, (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Patorski, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique, Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. vii — xi, pp. 372–373 (1993).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.C. Ghiglia and M.D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1998).MATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R.M. Goldstein, H.A. Zebker, and C.L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: two-dimensional phase unwrapping”, Radio Science, 23(4), pp. 713– 720, (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Pirodda, “Shadow and projection moiré techniques for absolute or relative mapping of surface shapes”, Optical Engineering 21(4), pp. 640–649, July/August (1982).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.F. Meyers, “Doppler Global Velocimetry — The Next Generation?”, AIAA-92–3897, AIAA 17th Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Nashville, TN, July 6–8 1992.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Phillips, “Image Processing in C, Part 14: Warping and Morphing”, C/C++ Users Journal, pp. 55 – 68, October, 1995.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G.A. Fleming, H.L. Soto, B.W. South, and S.M. Bartram, “Advances in Projection Moiré Interferometry Development for Large Wind Tunnel Applications”, SAE Paper No. 1999–01–5598, SAE World Aviation Congress, San Francisco, CA, October 19–21, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Bass, editor, Handbook of Optics, Volume II — Devices, Measurements, and Properties, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, (1995), pp. 11.6.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G.A. Fleming and A. W. Burner, “Deformation measurements of smart aerodynamic surfaces”, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3783, pp. 228–238, (1999).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    T.J. Mueller, editor, “Proceedings of the Conference on Fixed, Flapping, and Rotary Wing Vehicles at Very Low Reynolds Numbers,” Notre Dame Univ., Indiana, June 5–7, 2000.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    W.L. Sellers III, and S.O. Kjelgaard, “The Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel — A Facility Dedicated to Code Validation”, AIAA-88–1997, AIAA 15th Aerodynamic Testing Conference, San Diego, CA, May, 1988.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    P.G. Ifju, S. Ettinger, D.A. Jenkins, and L. Martinez, “Composite Materials for Micro Air Vehicles,” Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA, May 6–10, 2001.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M.R. Waszak, L.N. Jenkins, and P. Ifju, “Stability and Control Properties of an Aeroelastic Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle”, AIAA-2001–4005, AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, Montreal, Canada, August 6–9, 2001.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    G.A. Fleming, S.M. Bartram, M.R. Waszak, and L.N. Jenkins, “Projection Moiré Interferometry Measurements of Micro Air Vehicle Wings”, Proc. SPIE Vol. 4448, pp. 90–101,(2001).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A.Z. Lemnios and H.E. Howes, “Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Controllable Twist Rotor Performance and Dynamic Behavior”, USAAMRDL-TR-77–10, Fort Eustis, VA., June 1977.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. Chen and I. Chopra, “A Feasibility Study to Build a Smart Rotor: Induced Strain Actuation of Airfoil Twisting using Piezoceramic Crystals”, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 1917, Part 1, pp. 238–254, (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    F. Straub, “A Feasibility Study of Using Smart materials for Rotor Control”, American Helicopter Society 49th Annual Forum, St. Louis, MO, May, 1993.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    R.C. Derham and N.W. Hagood, “Rotor Design Using Smart Materials to Actively Twist Blades”, American Helicopter Society 52nd Annual Forum, Washington, DC, June 4–6, 1996.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M.L. Wilbur, P.H. Mirick, W.T. Yeager, C.W. Langston, C.E.S. Cesnik, and S-J. Shin, “Vibratory Loads Reduction Testing of the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor”, American Helicopter Society 57th Annual Forum, Washington, DC, May 9–11, 2001.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    S-J. Shin, Integral Twist Actuation of Helicopter Rotor Blades for Vibration Reduction, Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, August, 2001.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    S-J. Shin and C.E.S. Cesnik, “Design, manufacturing, and testing of an active twist rotor”, AMSL #99–3, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June, 1999.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    G.A. Fleming, editor, “Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability”, AIAA-2002–3244, 22nd Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 24–26, 2002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary A. Fleming
    • 1
  1. 1.Langley Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationUSA

Personalised recommendations