Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on the Genetic Variability of Silvery Marmosets, Mico argentatus

  • Evonnildo C. Gonçalves
  • Stephen F. Ferrari
  • Artur Silva
  • Paulo E. G. Coutinho
  • Elytânia V. Menezes
  • Maria Paula C. Schneider


Habitat fragmentation has evaluated effects on parameters such as species diversity, population density, and behavioral patterns, as shown in other chapters in this volume, but there are as yet few data available on its influence on genetic variation in free-ranging primate populations (but see Pope, 1996, 1998). Loss of genetic variability and inbreeding depression are generally presumed to be the primary results of the fragmentation of continuous populations, although outbreeding depression may also be relevant in many cases (Templeton, 1986; Dudash and Fenster, 2000).


Habitat Fragmentation Forest Fragment Inbreeding Depression Spider Monkey Continuous Forest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Albernaz, A. L., and Magnusson, W., 1999, Home-range size of the bare-ear marmoset (Callithrix argentata) at Alter do Chao, Central Amazonia, Brazil, lot. J. Primatol. 20: 665–6677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayres, M., Ayres, M., Jr., Ayres, D. L., and Santos, A. S., 2000, BioEstat 2.0—Aplicaç5es Estatísticas nas Areas das Ciências Bi ológicas e Médicas, Sociedade Civil Mamairaua/CNPq, Tefé.Google Scholar
  3. Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P., and Laake, J. L., 1993, Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations, Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  4. Corrêa, H. K. M., In preparation, Determinantes ecológicos da biologia reprodutiva de Callithrix argentata,Doctoral dissertation, Goeldi Museum, Belém.Google Scholar
  5. Dietz, J. M., Baker, A. J., and Ballou, J. A., 2000, Demographic evidence of inbreeding depression in wild golden lion tamarins, in: Genetics, Demography, and Viability of Fragmented Populations, A. G. Young and G. M. Clarke, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dixson, A. R, Anzenberger, G., Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. O., Patel, I., and Jeffreys, A. J., 1992, DNA fingerprinting of free-ranging groups of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) in NE Brazil, in: Paternity in Primates: Genetic Tests and Theories, R. D. Martin, A. F. Dixson, and E. J. Wickings, eds., Karger, Basel, pp. 192–202.Google Scholar
  7. Dudash, M. R., and Fenster, C. B., 2000, Inbreeding and outbreeding depression in fragmented populations, in: Genetics, Demography, and Viability of Fragmented Populations, A. G. Young and G. M. Clarke, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferrari, S. F., and Lopes, M. A., 1990, A survey of primates in central Para, Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Zoologia 6: 169–179.Google Scholar
  9. Ferrari, S. F., and Lopes, M. A., 1992, A new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates), from western Brazilian Amazonia, Goeldiana Zoologia 12: 1–13.Google Scholar
  10. Gagneux, P., Boesch, C., and Woodruff, D. S., 1997, Microsatellite scoring errors associated with noninvasive genotyping based on nuclear DNA amplified from shed hair, Molec. Ecol. 6: 861–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hershkovitz, P., 1977, Living New World Monkeys, Volume 1, with an Introduction to Primates, Chicago University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  12. Lacy, R. C., 1997, Importance of genetic variation to the viability of mammalian populations, J. Mammal. 78: 320–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lopes, M. A., and Ferrari, S. F., 2000, Effects of human colonization on the abundance and diversity of mammals in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, Cons. Biol. 14: 1,658–1,665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nei, M., 1972, Genetic distance between populations, Am. Nat. 106: 286–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nievergelt, C. M., Mundy, N. I., and Woodruff, D. S., 1999, Microsatellite primers for genotyping common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and other callitrichids, Mol. Ecol. 5: 1, 431–1, 439.Google Scholar
  16. Nievergelt, C. M., Digby, L. J., Ramakrishnan, U., and Woodruff, D. S., 2000, Genetic analysis of group composition and breeding system in a wild common marmoset (Callithrix jacclius) population, Int. J. Primatol. 21: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Peres, C. A., 1993, Structure and spatial organization of an Amazonian terra firme forest primate community, J. Trop. Ecol. 9: 259–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pope, T. R., 1996, Socioecology, population fragmentation, and patterns of genetic loss in endangered primates, in: Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature, J. C. Avise and J. L. Hamrick, eds., Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 119–159.Google Scholar
  19. Pope, T. R., 1998, Genetic variation in remnant populations of the woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles arachnoides), bu. J. Primatol. 19: 95–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Raymond, M., and Rousset, F., 1995, GENEPOP (Version 3.1): Population genetics software for exact test and ecumenicism, J. Hered. 86: 248–249.Google Scholar
  21. Rowe, N., 1998, A Pictorial Guide to the Primates, Pongonias Press, New Hampton.Google Scholar
  22. Rylands, A. B., and Keuroghlian, A., 1988, Primate populations in continuous forest and forest fragments in central Amazonia: Preliminary results, Acta Anaz. 18: 291–307.Google Scholar
  23. Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., et al., 2000, An assessment of the diversity of New World primates, Neotrop. Primates 8: 61–93.Google Scholar
  24. Slatkin, M. A., 1995, Measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies, Genetics 139 (1): 457–462.Google Scholar
  25. Tavares, L. L, 1999, Comportamento de forrageio em Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus 1771) na Estaçao Científica Ferreira Penna, Melgaço—PA, Masters thesis, UFPa, Belém.Google Scholar
  26. Templeton, A. R., 1986, Coadaptation and outbreeding depression, in: Conservation Biology, The Science of Scarcity and Diversity, M. E. Soulé, ed., Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp. 105–116.Google Scholar
  27. Veracini, C., 1997, O comportamento alimentai de Callithrix argentata ( Linnaeus 1771 ) ( Primata Callitrichinae), in: Caxivand, P. L. B. Lisboa, ed., Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belém, pp. 437–446.Google Scholar
  28. Weir, B. S., and Cockerham, C. C., 1984, Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure, Evolution 38: 1,358–1,370.Google Scholar
  29. Wright, S., 1978, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, Vol. 4: Variability Within and Among Natural Populations, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  30. Yeh, F. C., Yang, R. C., and Boylet, T., 1997, POPGENE (Version 1.32): Software Microsoft Window-based freeware for population genetic analysis, University of Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evonnildo C. Gonçalves
    • 1
  • Stephen F. Ferrari
    • 1
  • Artur Silva
    • 1
  • Paulo E. G. Coutinho
    • 1
  • Elytânia V. Menezes
    • 1
  • Maria Paula C. Schneider
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsUniversidade Federal do ParáBelémBrasil

Personalised recommendations